Digital relief map of Amboina

The principal port of the Spice Islands, Ambon (128.164E 3.687S) is about thirty miles (48 km) long. The island was discovered by the Portuguese in 1512 and was the site of St. Francis Xavier’s missionary work.  As a result, the southern half of the island of Amboina is largely Christian, while the northern half remains Muslim. The Protestant Ambonese were noted for their religious devotion and were highly regarded as soldiers by their Dutch rulers, who sometimes referred to them as the Black Dutch. The Japanese distrusted and mistreated them during the occupation for the same reasons.

In late 1941, the port was relatively well-developed and guarded by 19 coastal guns of various calibers up to 7” (178mm).  It also had a modern airfield at Laha (Pattimura; 128.09E 3.71S) guarded by four 40mm antiaircraft guns, and a seaplane base at Halong (128.220E 3.633S) with three large hangars and three underground fuel tanks.

The Battle of Ambon

The Japanese believed that American air power had been concentrated at Amboina and considered its seizure necessary to complete the isolation of the southern Philippines. The port and airfield fell to 1 Kure Special Landing Force and 228 Regiment (Ito) on 4 February 1942 after four days of bitter resistance by the 2600 troops of the Molukken Brigade and the 1170 Australians of Gull Force.  The Japanese landed on the south coast of the island, which the defenders had assumed would pose insurmountable terrain obstacles, and fought their way through mountainous jungle terrain to take the Allied coastal positions from the rear.

Following the battle, the Japanese murdered 300 Allied prisoners of war at Laha airfield, apparently in reprisal for the mining of W-9.

Ambon remained in Japanese hands for the remainder of the war.

Japanese order of battle, 31 January 1942:

Imperial Japanese Army     

228 Regiment (Ito)
From 38 Division
Imperial Japanese Navy

1 Kure Special Naval Landing Force (RADM Hatakeyama Koichiro)     

10 AP

Escort Force (RADM Tanaka Raizo)

CL Jintsu

Destroyer Squadron 2 (Tanaka)

Destroyer Division 8

DD Asashio
DD Oshio
DD Arashio
DD Michishio

Destroyer Division 15

DD Natsushio
DD Kuroshio
DD Oyashio
DD Hayashio

Destroyer Division 16

DD Amatsukaze
DD Hatsukaze
DD Yukikaze
DD Tokitsukaze

Minesweeper Division 21

AM W-7
AM W-8
AM W-9
AM W-11
AM W-12

Subchaser Division 1

SC Ch-1
SC Ch-2
SC Ch-3

Air Group (RADM Fujita Ruitaro)

Seaplane Tender Division 11

CVS Mizuho

CVS Chitose

PB P-34
PB P-39

Covering Force (RADM Takagi Takeo)

Cruiser Division 5 (Takagi)

CA Nachi
CA Haguro
DD Ikazuchi

Destroyer Division 7

DD Ushio
DD Sazanami

Allied order of battle, 31 January 1942:

Royal Dutch Army
Molukken Brigade (2800 men)
Royal Dutch Air Force

2-VI.G.IV (at Laha)

2 F2A Buffalo
Imperial Australian Army

Gull Force (2/21 Battalion, 1170 men)
Royal Australian Air Force

No. 13 Squadron

9 Hudson II (at Laha)

3 Hudson II (at Namlea, Buru Island)
United States Navy

PatWing 10 (at Halong)

AV Heron

10 PBY Catalina

Climate Information:

Elevation 14'

Temperatures: Jan 88/76, Apr 86/76, Jul 81/74, Oct 85/74, record 96/66

Rainfall: Jan 13/5.0, Apr 19/11.0, Jul 23/23.7, Oct 13/6.1 == 136.2" per annum


"The fall of Ambon" (accessed 2007-4-26)

Kehn (2008)

Morison (1948)

Willmott (1982)

Womack (2006) (accessed 2002; now defunct)

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional
sex n xxx
porn x videos
desi porn videos
hardcore porn
filme porno
filmati xxx
Груб секс
इंडियन सेक्स
वीडियो सेक्स
xn xx
Besuche uns
onlyfans leaked videos