Anshan (122.988E 41.099N) was the industrial center of Manchuria. Iron had been mined here since the 10th century, and wartime production was about 660,000 tons a year. The Showa Steel Works, founded in 1916, was the center of Japanese steel production outside Japan proper. The Anshan coke ovens produced fully a third of Japan’s metallurgical coke using coal from nearby mines, particularly the enormous mine at Fushun. The population was in the ballbark of 214,000 persons.

The city fell to the Japanese on 19 September 1931 during the Manchuria Incident. By the time war broke out in the Pacific, the city had an airfield and was garrisoned by 29 Division.

The coke works became an important strategic target later in the war, and were bombed on 29 July and 29 August 1944 by B-29s from XX Bomber Command. Captured by the Russians in their August 1945 Manchurian offensive, the city was stripped of most of its industrial equipment, but was rebuilt in the 1950s.

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Cohen (1949)

Hansell (1986; accessed 2010-11-12) (accessed 2002; now defunct)

Wen (1971)

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