Madras (80.256E 13.080N) was founded in 1639 by Francis Day of the East India Company. However, a small Portuguese settlement was present from at least 1547. A Nestorian inscription in the settlement church claims that St. Thomas was martyred here. The town changed hands several times but was securely in British hands by 1801.
The port is
entirely artificial and had less than nine berths in 1942. Industrial development was very meager
in 1941 in spite
of the presence of several educational institutions. The population in 1941 was about 780,000.
Madras has a typical monsoon climate, with a dry winter and spring followed by heavy rains in the summer and autumn.
Temperatures: Jan 85/67, Apr 95/78, Jul 96/79, Oct 90/75, record 113/57
Rainfall: Jan 2/1.4, Apr 0.9/0.6, Jul 7/3.6, Oct 11/12.0 == 50.0" per annum
Pearce and Smith (1990)
Populstat.info (accessed 2014-6-8)
Romanus and Sunderland (1953)
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