Digital relief map of Mongolia

The modern state of Mongolia was proclaimed in 1911, but China and Russia competed for control of the new state until November 1924, when the Mongolian People's Republic was established by native Bolshevik elements. In 1932, lamas (native priests) led thousands of refugees over the border to Inner Mongolia (a part of China) to escape Communist purges. In 1936 Russia signed a mutual aid pact with Mongolia, and in the winter of 1938-1939, Stalin supported a revolution by Khorloogiin Choibalsan, who cemented Mongolia's status as a Russian satellite. Choibalsan put down mutinies in the armed forces near the border with Manchuria and moved troops loyal to himself into the area.

Mongolian troops generally fought alongside Russians, as in the last days of the Pacific War, when Russia seized Manchuria from the Japanese. However, ethnic Mongolians in Inner Mongolia generally sided with the Japanese because of strong anti-Russian, anti-Chinese sentiments. As a result, the Japanese had several Mongolian cavalry corps under their nominal command at the outbreak of the Pacific War.

The Kuomintang claimed that, in March 1944, Mongolian troops raided Sinkiang province under Russian air cover. The reasons for this incursion remain obscure.


Hsiung and Levine (1992)

Watt (1989)

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