Padang (100.767E 0.684S) had the only significant harbor (Emmahaven; 100.372E 0.998S) on the Indian Ocean side of Sumatra, which is not surprising, considering that it rains pretty much nonstop in this region. In late 1941, the harbor was protected by four small coastal guns and a single battalion of troops. The population in 1941 was about 66,900 persons, of whom about 3500 were Europeans. Most of the rest Minangkabau, a Moslem ethnic group characterized by a matrilineal society whose male members had unusual motivation and opportunity to travel and seek education. The high educational level of Minangkabau men in turn meant that they were heavily represented in the Indonesian nationalist movement.

Climate Information:

Elevation 22'

Temperatures: Jan 87/74, Apr 87/75, Jul 87/74, Oct 86/74, record 94/69

Rainfall: Jan 16/13.8, Apr 17/14.3, Jul 12/10.9, Oct 20/19.5 == 164.3" per annum

Rail connections

Fort de Kock



"A Pocket Guide to the Netherlands East Indies" (accessed 2013-12-25)

Kennedy (1943-8-5; accessed 2012-12-25)

Pearce and Smith (1990)

Rottman (2002)

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