Tsinan (Jinan; 117.00E 36.65N) is a city and rail junction in northern China with a population of about 421,000 in 1941. It is the capital of Shantung (Shandong) province. Chiang Kai-shek was defeated here by Manchurian warlord Chang Tso-lin in 1927, which prevented Chiang from asserting control over Manchuria.

When Chiang again attempted to assert authority over the province in 1928, he clashed with the Japanese, who had landed reinforcements at Chingtao to defend their interests in the Shantung Peninsula. A Japanese regimental commander ordered his troops to fire on the Chinese, sparking a pitched battle that cost the Chinese 3600 casualties and helped poison Sino-Japanese relations. It is alleged that the Japanese tortured and murdered Chiang's commissioner for foreign affairs, Tsai Kung-shih, when he refused to sign a statement that the Japanese had fired on Chinese because the Chinese were attempting to loot the city.

The city fell to the 10 Division in mid-January 1938 after the governor of the province, Han Fu-chu, tried to cut a deal with the Japanese. Han retreated south on 24 December 1937, forcing all Chinese forces in east Shantung to retreat or be trapped. Han then abandoned his armies and fled to Kaifeng, where he was arrested by the Kuomintang, who later tried and executed him. The execution of Han marked a major political turning point in China, bringing together diverse cliques in support of Chiang against the Japanese.

The loss of Tsinan allowed 10 Division to link up with Navy forces at Tsingtao and advance along the Tsinpu Railroad south of Tsinan.

12 Army was based in Tsinan when war broke out in the Pacific.

Rail connections





Drea (2009)

Hoyt (1993)

Hsiung and Levine (1992)

Peattie et al. (2011) (accessed 2014-6-8)

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