HF/DF stood for High Frequency Direction Finding, and it was a key technology for winning the battle of the Atlantic. It was based on specialized radio receivers developed by lightning researchers prior to the war, and it was capable of obtaining accurate bearings even to extremely brief transmissions. Thus, it foiled the German Kurier microburst transmission technology used by U-boats for their communications, which was supposed to be proof against direction finding. It was useful but less crucial in the Pacific, where the submarine threat was much less and the Japanese did not practice the same kind of central control as the Germans.


Buderi (1998)

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