Kyoto (135.75E 35N) is an important cultural center and was capital of Japan until the Meiji Restoration of 1870.  It remained the center of Buddhism in Japan after the Emperor moved his court to Tokyo. Kyoto was a center for tungsten mining (about 610 tons per year). The population was 1,089,726 in October 1940.

At the outbreak of war, Kyoto was the headquarters of 53 Division. It was the divisional district for 16 Division.

Kyoto was named as a target for nuclear attack, but was ultimately spared because of its cultural significance. As a result, it was one of the few Japanese cities left almost unscathed by the strategic bombing campaign, having suffered only three small raids (all claimed to be unintentional in the postwar U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey.)

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Craven and Cate (1952; accessed 2013-5-28)

Embree (1943-1-23; accessed 2013-5-30)

"Handbook on Japanese Military Forces" (1944-9-15; accessed 2013-5-30)

Van Royen and Bowles (1952)

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