Kalgan, also known as Changyuan or Changchiakou (Zhangjiakou; 114.879E 40.818N), is located at the important Nankow Pass in the Great Wall of China. It was the southern terminus for a number of historically important caravan routes from Outer Mongolia and had a mixed population of ethnic Chinese and ethnic Mongols.

When war broke out in the Pacific, Kalgan was the headquarters of the puppet Mongol Army. 26 Division and 2 Independent Mixed Brigade were also garrisoned here.

The Japanese Army had built up a huge arsenal in the city by the time of the surrender in August 1945. This was captured by the Russians during their Manchurian offensive and turned over to the Chinese Communists, an early indication that the Stalin was not going to honor his Yalta promises in the Far East.

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Craig (1967)

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