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T2-SE-A1 Class, U.S. Tankers


Photograph of T2 tanker converted to Navy service

Mare Island #5595-43. Via Navsource.org


Specifications:


Tonnage 10,448 gross register tons
5,110 tons light displacement
21,880 tons full displacement
Dimensions 523'6" by 68' by 14'7"
159.56m by 20.73m by 4.45m
Maximum speed       15 knots
Complement 57
Machinery
1-shaft turbo-electric (6600 shp)
2 two-drum water tube boilers
Bunkerage
1468 tons
Range
10,800  nautical miles
20,000 km
Liquid capacity 141,158 barrels
Dry cargo 560 tons


The T2-SE-A1s were the most numerous Maritime Commission standard tankers built during the war and constituted all but eleven of the T-2 tankers constructed. Their design was developed by Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. for Standard Oil and the first ships of this type were laid down in early 1940. They were large ships equipped with turboelectric drive to avoid competing with the Navy for reduction gears, which had become the bottleneck for ship construction by spring 1941. They were well-suited for mass production, with an average total construction time of 70 days. Yet they were constructed carefully enough that at least four were still in service at the turn of the millennium. The ships were among the first to use all-welded construction, a technique pioneered by Sun. 

The ships had nine sets of tanks; Tanks 2-9 had a center section with a capacity of 391,500 gallons (1,482,000 liters) and saddle tanks with 165,000 gallons (624,600 liters) each. Tank 1 had only two sections of 79,000 gallons (300,000 liters) each. There were 3 2000 gallon per minute (126 liters per second), 1 700 gallon per minute (44 liters per second), and 2 400 gallon per minute (25 liters per second) pumps in the rear pump room and one 700 gallon per minute (44 liters per second) and one 300 gallon per minute (19 liters per second) pump in the forward pump room, the front pumps being intended only for redistribution and stripping. There was a very small amount of dry cargo space, amounting to less than 600 cubic meters.

A number of T2 tankers suffered catastrophic structural failure, including Schenectady in January 1943. Schenectady was berthed at Portland when abruptly, and with a loud report, the main deck and sides of the hull cracked just aft of the midships deckhouse. Only the bottom plating remained intact, and the ship jacknifed and her bows and stern came to rest on the river bottom. Investigators initially blamed the structural failure on an excessive number of stress points in the hull and on the all-welded construction. The use of welds allowed cracks to propagate great distances rather than being arrested at the edges of riveted plates. The T-2 design was tweaked to reduce stress points, and crack arrestors were riveted to the hulls. However, postwar investigators pinpointed low-quality steel as the culprit. The steel had a high sulfur content, which at lower temperatures made the steel excessively brittle.

A number of units built to Navy contract were designated T2-SE-A2 tankers. These are listed under the Pasig and Escambia classes. They differed from the T2-SE-A1 chiefly in using a more powerful (10,000 shp) turboelectric drive originally developed for the P2-SE2 transports. This was done because the less powerful drive was in short supply and there was surplus production capacity at General Electric for the more powerful drive. Curiously, there is little indication the -A2s were significantly faster than the -A1s.

The ships cost about $3.1 million apiece.

Units in the Pacific:

Allied shipping was shifted from theater to theater as determined by the Combined Chiefs of Staff and records are not easily located concerning which ships were committed to the Pacific at what times. However, a completion schedule for these ships is available.

Month

East Coast

Portland Sausalito




8/41 Corsicana

10/41 Caddo

1/42 Calusa

2/42 Catwaba

3/42 Gettysburg Schenectady
5/42 Bunker Hill
Caddo II


7/42 Trenton
White Plains


8/42 Esso Manhattan

9/42 Ticonderoga

10/42 Monmouth
Bennington


11/42 Cherry Valley
Esso Wilmington
Esso Washington
Esso Patterson


12/42 Caribbean
Esso Norfolk


1/43 Guilford
Fort Lee
Conastoga II


2/43 Vera Cruz
Hobkirk's Hill
Palo Alto
Louisburg
Quebec
3/43 Arickaree
Birch Coulie
Churubusco
Eutaw Springs
Buena Vista
Fort Necessity
Fort Duquesne
Fort Moultrie
Fort Washington

4/43 Buffalow Wallow
San Antonio
Cerro Gordo
Contreras
Egg Harbor
Stony Point

5/43 Camas Meadows
Canyon Creek
Pueblo
Molino Del Ray
Chapultapec
Fort Niagra
Charlestown
New London
Brookfield
Northfield
Hadley
Fallen Timbers

6/43 Cedar Mills
Jalapa
Perote
Bloody Marsh
Great Meadows
Pequiot Hill
Fort Dearborn
Queenstown Heights      
River Raison

7/43 Hat Creek
Cross Keys
Bull Run
Ball's Bluff
Appomattox
Corinth
Fort Meigs
Fort Stephenson
York
Fort George

8/43 Julesburg
Little Big Horn
McClellan Creek
Seven Pines
Chickamauga
Monocacy
Front Royal
Kenesaw Mountain
Sackett's Harbor
Stony Creek
Lundy's Lane
Fort Erie
Plattsburg

9/43 Pine Ridge
Power River
Quemado Lake
Rosebud
Murfreesboro
Winchester
Lake George
Crown Point
Lake Champlain
Fort McHenry

10/43 Red Canyon
Sappa Creek
Abiqua
Fort Laramie
Gaines Mill
Sharpsburg
Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville
Mill Spring
Fairfax
McDowell
Kittanning
Bladensburg
Fort Sumter
Fort Henry
Fort Donelson
White Oak
Mechanicsville

11/43 Sweetwater
Touchet
Evans Creek
Perryville
Petersburg
Spottsylvania
Vicksburg
Chantilly
Lookout Mountain
Champoeg
Oregon Trail
Gervais
Umatilla

12/43 Wagon Box
Washita
Skull Bar
Brandy Station
Harpers Ferry
Manassas
Missionary Ridge
Opequon
Fisher's Hill
Cedar Creek
Five Forks
Corvallis
Klamath Falls
Yamhill
Owyhee
Table Rock
Wallowa
Grande Ronde
Coquille

1/44 Four Lakes
Cayuse
Fort Fetterman
Malvern Hill
Jacksonville
Meacham

2/44 Wolf Mountain
Fort Bridger
South Mountain
Williamsburg
Kernstown
Santiago
Hanging Rock
Nehalem
Tillamook
Pendleton
Celilo

3/44 Wyoming Valley
Apache Canyon
Autossee
White River
Boundbrook
Fort Schuyler
Sag Harbor
Hegra
Frenchtown
Esso Springfield
Esso Portland
Esso New Haven
Crater Lake
Newberg
Ochoco
Ranier
Battle Rock

4/44 Wood Lake
Beaver Dam
Wilson's Creek
Blackstocks Ford
Lyon's Creek
Whitehorse
Fort Conrwallis
The Dalles
Glacier Park
Grand Mesa
Idaho Falls

5/44 Callabee
San Juan Hill
Port Royal
James Island
Catawba Ford
Fort Cumberland
Esso Utica
Musgrove Mills
Moor's Fields
Silverpeak
Elk Basin
Coulee Dam
Tuolumne Meadows
Camp Namanu
Wolf Creek

6/44 Cahawba
Horseshoe
Bear Paw
Platte Bridge
Pocket Canyon
Tule Canyon
Karsten Wang
Catham
Esso Camden
Esso Scranton
Esso Memphis
Lake Erie
Point Pleasant
Donner Lake
Scotts Bluff
Tumacacori
Chalmette
Nickajack Trail
Shawnee Trail

7/44 Wahoo Swamp
White Bird Canyon      
El Caney
Esso Roanoke
Glorieta
Cedar Mountain
Ridgefield
Kettle Creek
Bandelier
Trailblazer
Fort Winnebago
Forbes Road
Fort Charlotte

8/44 The Cabins
Nordahl Grieg
The Cottonwoods
Mauvilla
Hobkirk's Hill II
Rich Mountain
Groveton
Chaco Canyon
Pipe Springs
Fort Matanzas
Verendrye
Castle Pinckney
Tonto

9/44 Barren Hill
Bemis Heights
Briar Creek
Blackwater
Turkey Island
Drewry's Bluff
Black Jack
Diamond Island
Grand Teton
Beacon Rock
Hovenweep
Swamp Island
Montezuma Castle
Smoky Hill
Fort William
Pioneer Valley
Tampico
Sandy Creek
Kettleman Hills
Elk Hills
Lost Hills
10/44 Camp Defiance
Chatterton Hill
Fort Stevens
North Point
Paulus Hook
Quaker Hill
Tullahoma
Prarie Grove
Valverde
Chrysler's Field
Edge Hill
Lone Jack
Battle Mountain
Fort Wood
Hood River
Blacks Hills
Warrior Point
Antelope Hills
11/44       Red Bank
Grand River
Cottonwood Creek
Little Butte
Fort Ridgely
Paou
Pine Bluff
Yellow Tavern
La Mesa
Waxhaws
Champion's Hill
Pulpit Rock
Fort Clatsop
Laurel Hill
Mesa Verde
W.L.R. Emmet
Buena Vista
Coalinga Hills
Montebello Hills
12/44 Rogue River
The Yakima
Beecher Island
Spring Hill
Chesapeake Capes
Bushy Run
Wauhatchie
Hubbardton
French Creek
El Morro
Casa Grande
Pilot Butte
Bryce Canyon
Cedar Breaks
Pinnacles
Capitol Reef
Rum River
Inglewood Hills
Baldwin Hills
McKittrick Hills
Newhall Hills
Rincon Hills
1/45 Ash Hollow
Mobile Bay
Pit River
Fort Robinson
Averysboro
Allatoona
San Pasqual
Carnifax Ferry
Salmon Falls
Joshua Tree
Platt Park
Stones River
Fort Stanwix
Fort Frederica
Saguaro
Chadd's Ford
Fort Republic
Potrero Hills
2/45 Palo Duro
Crow Wing
Pawnee Rock
Sandy Lake
Piqua
Fort Pitt
Sideling Hill
Marne
New Market
Somme
Trevilian
New Hope
Chisholm Trail
Carlsbad
Fort Christina
Sunset
Choctaw Trail
Sunset Hills
Midway Hills
Whittier Hills
Signal Hills
Ventural Hills
3/45 Blue Licks
Golden Hill
War Bonnett
Chateau-Thierry
Meuse-Argonne
Cantigny
Sedan
Saint Mihiel
Amiens
Logan's Fort
White Sands
Sullys Hill
New Echota
Muir Woods
Big Bend
Puente Hills
La Brea Hills
Santa Maria Hills
4/45 Honningsvaag
Kathio
Spirit Lake
Kaposia
Royal Oak
Winter Hill
Santa Paula
Kings Canyon
Salem Maritime
Fort Lane
Bradford Island
Kern Hills
Elwood Hills
Torrance Hills
Santa Fe Hills
5/45 Chicaca
Ackia
Boonesborough
Redstone
Roxbury Hill
Clarke's Wharf
Hammerfest
Cobble Hill
Camp Charlotte
Homestead
Fort Raleigh
Modoc Point
Dominguez Hills
Palmoa Hills
Fullerton Hills
6/45 Council Grove
Gold Creek
Drapers Meadows
Fort Caspar
Castle's Woods
Turner's Gap
Chemawa
Grants Pass
Steens Mountain
Belridge Hills
Coyote Hills
Huntington Hills
7/45 Dobytown
Wagon Mound
Phantom Hill
Raton Pass
Honey Hill
Atlantic Refiner
Atlantic Mariner
Council Crest
Government Camp
Multnomah
Grays Harbor
Wheeler Hills


References

Lane (1951)

Spyrou (2006)

The T2 Tanker Page (accessed 2007-2-10)

Visser (2003; accessed 2013-3-30)
Wildenberg (1996)



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