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Chang Fa-kuei (Zhang Fakui) was born in Kwangtung province, China, and received his military education at the Wuchang Military Academy. He was an old crony of Chiang Kai-shek, having been an instructor at the Whampoa Academy and commander of 4 Army in the Northern Expedition of 1926, and was a close associate of Li Tsung-jen. He proved himself a forceful commander in these early campaigns.
Chang retired in 1927, but came out of retirement
to brutally suppress the Communist
uprising in Canton in December of
that year. In 1929 he unsuccessfully tried to break with Chiang
himself. He was rehabilitated in July 1937 and commanded the Chinese
forces at Shanghai, which
resisted the Japanese for
four months, taking 60% casualties before being outflanked by
amphibious landings and routed.
By the time of Pearl
Chang was in command of the 4 War Area.
Dorn (1974) claims that Chang took this command, which covered Kwangtung and
Kwangsi provinces, because this was as far from the Japanese as he
could get. By this time,
he had little loyalty left to Chiang and had gone soft, becoming
corrupt. Dorn's attitude probably reflects that of Stilwell,
who referred to Chang as "Fish-head" in his diaries (Romanus and
Sunderland 1953). However, Chang rejected overtures from Wang Ching-wei
to join the
Nanking government in 1938. His forces were soundly defeated during
the 1944 Ichi-go offensive.
Cut off from Chungking in
southeast China, Chang
attempted to establish his own government with Hsueh Yueh but could garner no U.S. support.
Chiang naturally never trusted Chang again, and although Chang was recalled to active duty during the Chinese civil war, he played no important role and retired after fleeing the mainland.
Chiang was physically unimposing but was acquired a reputation for
physical courage early in his life, sometimes being called "Chang Fei"
after a legendary Chinese hero. He never trusted the German
advisers employed by Chiang early in the second Sino-Japanese War,
telling one interviewer that "I always had a bad impression of the
Germans" (quoted in Harmsen 2013).
||Born in Kwantung province
||Commander, 4 Army
||Commander, 12 Division
Chekiang-Fukien-Anhwei-Kiangsi Border Area
||Commander, 8 Army Group
||Commander, Right Wing, 3 War Area
||Commander, 2 Army
||Commander, 4 War Area
||Commander, Kweilin War Area
||Commander, 2 Front Army
||Dies at Taiwan
Dupuy et.al. (1992)
Generals.de (accessed 2007-11-28)
Hsiung and Levine (1992)
Peattie et al. (2011)
Romanus and Sunderland (1953)
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