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Kuomintang Order of Battle

We present here the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist) order of battle from 7 December 1941 on, as near as we have been able to determine it. This order of battle is very uncertain due to the lack of English-language sources. Much of what is here is interpolated from earlier campaigns described by Dorn (1974) and Hsu and Chang (1971) and the campaigns of 1944, supplemented with command information from Generals.dk.

Units that deployed as part of a higher echelon (such divisions assigned to armies) are not listed separately. Also, units redesignated from other units are not included, though the redesignation is noted. The intent is to give a reasonable reinforcement schedule for war games.

Tabulated information

Unit. This is the name of the unit.

Commander. This is the commander of the unit at the time of its activation. For units already active when war broke out, it is the commander of the unit on 7 December 1941. In general, we do not display commanders below flag or general rank. Ships showing a commander are the flagship of that commander.

Start. This gives the date and location of the unit's activation. For units already active when war broke out, only the location is given (at 8:00 AM on 7 December 1941, Hawaii time). If no location is given, a unit should be assumed to be at the same location as its operational headquarters (or administrative headquarters if no operational assignment is given.) Naval headquarters are located on the flagship of their commander unless otherwise specified.

Administrative Assignment. The administrative assignments in this table represent the formal organizational structure. The table is sorted by adminstrative assignment, such that every unit appears after the unit to which it is administratively assigned.

Operational Assignment. The operational assignment, if one is given, represents temporary attachment to another unit for a single operation. For example, an aircraft carrier might be administratively assigned to a carrier division, but be operationally assigned to a task force for a particular mission.

Notes. This is miscellaneous information about a unit, such as its manpower and equipment, where it was raised, what its initial orders were, any redesignation of the unit, and how well it performed in battle.

Organization of the tables

The order of battle tables are laid out for maximum readability by software tools while retaining some semblance of human readability. In addition to the displayed text and associated links, each unit has an HTML anchor with a unique identifier based on the unit name. For example, the entry for 3 Army Group includes the anchor 3_Army_Group, which appears immediately before the unit name in the table. These anchors are used to cross-reference the tables but may also be of use to software tools scanning the tables.

We are considering offering the complete orders of battle as SQL files or as C++ code. Users of the Encyclopedia who desire these or other formats may write to trollingshallows@msn.com and make their desires know.

The order of battle

The rank and unit structure of the Kuomintang Army was inflated relative to Western and Japanese armies. Divisions typically had a strength of just 6,000 to 7,000 men, except for a few divisions organized and trained by German advisors before 1937 or American advisors after 1942. The echelon above division is described by different sources either as corps or army; because histories of the Burma campaign have leaned towards army, and because the next higher echelon is usually described as army group, we have settled on army in this Encyclopedia. The army is the lowest echelon listed separately in the order of battle which follows.

There were ~300 divisions active in December 1941, of which the vast majority were poorly trained and equipped. 1,200,000 men (~176 divisions) were under Chiang, of whom 650,000 were directly controlled and 550,000 under nominally loyal warlords. Total manpower was 3 million men. The best 31 divisions, "The Generalissimo’s Own" (300,000 men), had been trained and equipped by the Germans prior to the Tripartite Pact and were relatively capable. However, they were constantly held in reserve against the Communists and rebel warlords, who Chiang regarded as the real long term enemy. The remaining ~145 divisions were under regional warlords or the Communists.


Unit
Commander
Start
Administrative
Assignment
Operational
Assignment
Notes
Nationalist Chinese Army Chiang Kai-shek
Chungking

Chiang's Chief of Staff was Pai Ch'ung-hsi. His defense minister was Ho Ying-ch'in, an old crony. Chiang's chief of ordinance, Yu Ta-wei, was one of the most intelligent and least corrupt men in the military command, and was responsible for moving Chinese industry to the Chungking area.  He would later arrange a similar move of priceless treasures to Formosa.
1 War Area Wei Li-huang Sian Nationalist Chinese Army

Took in a corridor along the Yellow River from Kaifeng and Chengchow west into central Asia.

3 Army Group Sun Tung-hsuan Hsuchang (Xuchang; 113.826E 34.008N)
1 War Area


12 Army Sun Tung-hsuan
3 Army Group
111 and 112 Divisions
56 Army
Ku Liang-min?

3 Army Group
163 and 164 Divisions
76 Army Li Tieh-chun?

3 Army Group
196 Division
5 Army Group Tseng Wan-chung Chiyuan (Jiyuan; 112.574E 35.090N) 1 War Area

3 Army Li Shih-lung?
Chi-shan (Jishan: 110.984E 35.604N)
5 Army Group
7 and New 3 Divisions
17 Army Kao Kuei-tse Chi-shan (Jishan: 110.984E 35.604N) 5 Army Group
84 and 2 Divisions
80 Army Kung Ling-hsun Tai-chai-tsun (Caochuanzhen: 111.528E 34.903N)
5 Army Group
165 and New 27 Divisions
14 Army Group Liu Mao-en In the mountains northwest of Chi-yuan (Jiyuan: 112.602E 35.067N)
1 War Area
Wei Li-huang seems to have take personal command of this army group at times. It was essentially a guerrilla force that maintained a precarious toehold in mountainous terrain north of the Yellow River.
9 Army Pei Chang-hui?
14 Army Group
47, 54, and 24 Divisions
14 Army Chen Tieh

14 Army Group
85 and 94 Divisions
15 Army
Wu Ting-lin

14 Army Group
64 and 65 Divisions
43 Army Chao Shih-ling?
14 Army Group
70 and New 47 Divisions
93 Army Liu Kan?
14 Army Group
10 Division
98 Army

14 Army Group
42 and 169 Divisions
36 Army Group
Li Chia-yu
Mien-chi (Mianchi: 111.761E 34.765N)
1 War Area

91 Army Hsuan Tieh-wu
1 War Area
58 Provisional, 10 Cavalry, and New 4 Divisions
2 Cavalry Army
An Juncai

1 War Area
3 Cavalry Division
2 War Area
Yen Hsi-shan Chiyuan? (Jiyuan; 112.574E 35.090N) Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in Shansi and northern Shensi. Nominally commanded the Communist 8 Route Army, designated as 18 Army Group, but exercised no real control. Because Chiang did not trust Yen, the troops were indifferently equipped.
4 Army Group Sun Wei-ju Chiyuan (Jiyuan; 112.574E 35.090N) 2 War Area

38 Army Chao Shou-shan
4 Army Group
17 and New 35 Divisions
47 Army Li Chia-yu
4 Army Group
104 Division
96 Army Li Hsing-chung
4 Army Group
177 Division
6 Army Group Yang Ai-yuan
2 War Area

19 Army Wang Ching-kuo
6 Army Group
68, 37 Provisional, and 42 Provisional Divisions
61 Army

6 Army Group
69, 72, and 48 Provisional Divisions
1 Cavalry Army Wen Huai-kuang
6 Army Group
1 Cavalry and 2 Cavalry Divisions
7 Army Group Fu Tso-yi
2 War Area

22 Army Kao Shuang-cheng
7 Army Group
86 Division
33 Army
Yu Chen-ho

7 Army Group
71, 38 Provisional, and 41 Provisional Divisions
34 Army
Chang Yi

7 Army Group?
73, 44 Provisional, and 45 Provisional Divisions
40 Army Pang Ping-hsun?
Lingchuan (113.279E 35.785N)
2 War Area

3 War Area Ku Chu-tung Chienshan (Yanshan: 117.702E 28.315N)
Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in most of the east coast of China south of the Yangtze River and north of Swatow, including Fukien, Chekiang, Kiangsu, northeastern Kiangsi, and southeastern Anhwei.
8 Army Group
Sun Chu

3 War Area

May have been directly subordinate to Chiang Kai-shek in December 1941
10 Army Group Liu Chien-hsu
3 War Area

49 Army
Near Hsia-kou (Xiakouzhen: 118.540E 28.469N)
10 Army Group
26, 105, and 5 Reserve Divisions
23 Army Group Tang Shih-tsun Chingtechen (Jingdezhen: 117.175E 29.303E)
3 War Area

21 Army Chen Wan-jen
23 Army Group
146, 147, and 148 Divisions
50 Army Kuo Hsun-chi
23 Army Group
144, 145, and New 7 Divisions
25 Army Group Chen Yi? Yunho (Yunhe: 119.580E 28.111N)
3 War Area

88 Army
Ho Shao-chou
25 Army Group
New 21, New 30, and 32 Provisional Divisions
100 Army Shih Chung-cheng

25 Army Group
63 and 75 Divisions
32 Army Group Shangkuan Yun-hsiang Hsuan-cheng (Xuancheng: 118.761E 30.939N) 3 War Area

25 Army Wang Ching-chiu Ta-tung (Datongzhen: 119.118E 29.307N)
32 Army Group
40, 55, and 108 Divisions
28 Army Tao Kuang
32 Army Group
62 and 192 Divisions
26 Army
Ting Chih-pan
Fang-tsun Chen (Fangcunzhen: 118.622E 29.051N)
3 War Area
32, 41, 44, and 46 Divisions
86 Army Mo Yu-shuo
Ch'u-chow (Quzhou: 118.872E 28.929N)
3 War Area
16, 79, and 67 Divisions
4 War Area Chang Fa-kuei Nanning
Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in Kweichow, Kwangsi, and southwestern Kwangtung. Because Chiang distrusted the Kwangsi Clique, the troops were quite poorly supplied with equipment.
9 Army Group Kuan Lin-cheng
4 War Area

16 Army Group Hsia Wei Pan-cheng (Banchengzheng: 108.704E 22.293N)
4 War Area

31 Army

16 Army Group
131 and 135 Divisions
46 Army Li Hsing-shu
16 Army Group
170, 175, and New 19 Divisions
26 Army Group
Tsai Ting-kai
4 War Area


35 Army Group Teng Lung-kuang Near Yunfu (112.042E 22.920N)
4 War Area

64 Army Chen Kung-hsia?
35 Army Group
155 and 156 Divisions
37 Army Group

4 War Area

66 Army

37 Army Group
New 28, New 29, and New 38 Divisions. New 38 Division was commanded by Sun Li-jen, one of the best Chinese division commanders, and its performance in battle was superior. It later received training at Ramgarh.
38 Army Group Tung Chao?

4 War Area

2 Army Wang Ling-yun

38 Army Group

9, 33, and 76 Division. Rated by Stilwell as one of the better Chinese armies.
5 Army Tu Yu-ming
38 Army Group
96, 200, and New 22 Divisions. 200 Division was a triangular division, and the only motorized division in the entire Chinese army in 1940. New 22 Division later received training at Ramgarh.
36 Army Luo Li-jung?

38 Army Group
15 Provisional, 52 Provisional, and 59 Provisional Divisions
6 Army
Kan Li-chu
Kunming
4 War Area
49, 93, and 55 Provisional Divisions. One American officer described it as "a third-rate warlord's levy." 55P Division was particularly poor. On the other hand, 49 Division was regarded by some American observers as one of the best in the Chinese Army.
54 Army Huang Wei
4 War Area
14, 50, and 23 Divisions. Rated by Stilwell as one of the better Chinese armies.
95 Army


4 War Area

5 War Area
Li Tsung-jen West of Tengchou (Dengzhou: 112.076E 32.698N)
Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in northern Hupei and southeastern Honan.  Dorn puts the strength at 57 divisions or 380,000 men.
2 Army Group Sun Lien-chung Tsao-yang (Zaoyang; 112.775E 32.129N)
5 War Area
Considered one of the best formations of the Kuomintang Army
30 Army Chih Feng-cheng Near Hsien-chu (Xianjuxiang: 112.042E 31.399N)
2 Army Group
27, 30, and 31 Divisions
42 Army Chang Kun-sheng?

2 Army Group
191 and 7 Reserve Divisions
55 Army Tsao Fu-lin
2 Army Group
74 and 29 Divisions
59 Army Huang Wei-kang Nanyang (112.517E 33.001N)
2 Army Group
38, 180, and 9 Cavalry Divisions
68 Army Liu Ju-ming Hsiang-ho-kuan (Xianghexiang: 113.430E 33.107N)
2 Army Group
143, 119, and 36 Provisional Divisions
11 Army Group Sung Hsi-lien
Huantanchen (Hongzhanchen; 112.909E 31.670N)
5 War Area

92 Army Li Hsien-chou?
Northeast of Ming-kang (Minggangzhen: 114.049E 32.465N)
31 Army Group
21 142, and 14 Provisional Divisions
East Hupei Guerrilla Force Li Pin-hsien

5 War Area
Possibly identical with 21 Army Group.
7 Army Chang Kan East of Liu-lin (Liulinxiang: 114.099E 31.965N)
East Hupei Guerrilla Force
171, 172, 3 Guerrilla, and 4 Guerrilla Divisions
48 Army Chang Yi-shun
East Hupei Guerrilla Force
138 and 176 Divisions
22 Army Group Sun Chen Southwest of Sui-hsien (Suixian: 113.307E 31.856N)
5 War Area

41 Army Sun Chen? Tang-hsien-chen (Tangxianzhen: 113.122E 31.975N)
22 Army Group
122 and 124 Divisions
45 Army

22 Army Group
125 and 127 Divisions
24 Army Group
Wang Yao-wu?
Ning-hsiang (Ningxiang: 112.545E 28.248N)
5 War Area
An educated guess. May have been in Taihang Mountains of southeast Shansi instead.
73 Army
Peng Wei-jen
24 Army Group

An educated guess. 77, 5 Provisional, and 15 Divisions.
28 Army Group
Pan Wen-hua?

5 War Area

23 Army
Liang Chunpu

28 Army Group

40 Provisional, 46 Provisional, and 47 Provisional Divisions
29 Army Group Wang Tsuan-tsu
An-hsiang (Anxiang: 112.170E 29.417N)
5 War Area

44 Army Liao Chen Near Hungshanchen (Hongshanzhen: 112.911E 31.667N)
29 Army Group
149 and 150 Divisions
67 Army

29 Army Group
161 and 162 Divisions
31 Army Group T'ang En-po Near P'ingtingshan (Pingdingshan: 113.310E 33.737N)
5 War Area

13 Army Chang Hsueh-chung
Near Yeh (Yexian: 113.360E 33.624N)
31 Army Group
89, 110, and New 1 Divisions
18 Army Peng Shan
31 Army Group
18 and 199 Divisions
29 Army Chen T'a-ching
Wu-cheng ku-hsien (Wuchengzhen: 113.513E 32.427N)
31 Army Group
91 and 16 Provisional Divisions. Involved in the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
84 Army Chin Lien-fang Cheng-yang (Zhengyang: 114.390N 32.605N)
31 Army Group
178 and 188 Divisions
85 Army Li Chu-ying
Shangshui (114.608E 33.536N)
31 Army Group
4, 25, and 11 Reserve Divisions
33 Army Group Feng Chih-an Nanyang (112.525E 32.987N)
5 War Area

39 Army Liu Ho-ting?
5 War Area
56 Division
71 Army
Chung Pin?

5 War Area
36, 87, and 88 Divisions. Stilwell rated this one of the better Chinese armies. All its divisions were German-trained divisions that had fought at Shanghai in 1937 and were rated among the best in the Chinese Army.
75 Army
Tsao-yang (Zaoyang; 112.775E 32.129N) 5 War Area
6, 13, and 4 Cavalry Divisions
77 Army Feng Chih-an
5 War Area
37, 132, and 179 Divisions
94 Army Li Chi-lan
West of Yunmeng (113.748E 31.031N)
5 War Area
185 Division
New 12 Army


5 War Area
1 Honor and 5 Divisions
6 War Area
Ch'en Ch'eng
Enshih (Enshi: 109.490E 30.257N)
Nationalist Chinese Army
Upper Yangtze River watershed, including eastern Szechuan, southern Hupei, and northern Hunan. May not yet have been separated from 5 War Area in December 1941.
8 Army Li Mi?
Kung-an? (Gong'an: 112.227E 30.055N)
6 War Area

53 Army Chou Fu-chen
6 War Area
116 and 130 Divisions
7 War Area
Yu Han-mou
Yangshan (112.636E 24.477N)
Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in the area around Canton and Hong Kong. May not yet have been separated from 4 War Area in December 1941.
12 Army Group Yu Han-mou North of Canton
7 War Area

62 Army Chang Ta
12 Army Group
151, 157, and 158 Divisions
63 Army Chang Jui-kuei
12 Army Group
152, 153, and 186 Divisions
65 Army

12 Army Group
154, 160, and 187 Divisions
83 Army

12 Army Group
66, 49 Provisional, and 50 Provisional Divisions
8 War Area
Chu Shao-liang Lanchow? Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in Kansu, Ninghsia, Tsinghai, and west Suiyuan. None of the predominantly Muslim troops were well-trained or particularly loyal, and were allies of Chiang only in the sense that they hated the Chinese Communists.
17 Army Group Ma Hung-pin Yinchuan (106.221E 38.486N)
8 War Area

11 Army
Ma Tung-ching?

17 Army Group

6 Provisional and 31 Provisional Divisions
81 Army Ma Hung-pin Anpei (Dashetaizhen: 109.146E 41.022N) 17 Army Group
35 Division
82 Army Ma Pu-fang?
17 Army Group
100, New 8 Cavalry, and 61 Provisional Divisions
5 Cavalry Army Ma Pu-ching
17 Army Group
5 Cavalry and 1 Provisional Cavalry Divisions
6 Cavalry Army
Men Ping-yueh?

17 Army Group

35 Army Fu Tso-yi Anpei (Dashetaizhen: 109.146E 41.022N)
8 War Area
101, New 31, and New 32 Divisions
4 Cavalry Army


8 War Area
New 3 Cavalry and New 4 Cavalry Divisions
9 War Area Hsueh Yueh Ningtu (Ningdu: 116.026E 26.476N)
Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in northwest Kiangsi, south Hupei, and Hunan. Because this formation claimed a significant victory against the Japanese at Changsha shortly before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Dorn gave it unusual attention, and its dispositions are probably better established than those of other Chinese formations in December 1941.
1 Army Group Lu Han
Hsuchiatu (Xujiaduzhen; 114.708E 28.243N)
9 War Area
Composed mostly of troops from south China who lacked training and equipment. Took heavy casualties at the battle of Taierhchuang.
58 Army Sun Tu Shang-kao (Shanggao: 114.931E 28.233N)
1 Army Group
New 10 and New 11 Divisions
60 Army An En-pu
1 Army Group
184 Division
3 Cavalry Army


1 Army Group
New 7 Cavalry Division
15 Army Group
Ho Chu-kuo
Changsha 9 War Area

10 Army Li Yu-tang? Changsha
15 Army Group
3, 10 Reserve, and 190 Divisions
37 Army Chen Pei Near Wushihchen (Wushizhen: 113.252E 28.779N)
15 Army Group
60, 95, and 140 Divisions
52 Army Chang Yao-ming?
Near Yung-an-shih (Yong'anzhen: 113.291E 28.218N)
15 Army Group
195 Division
19 Army Group Lo Cho-ying Kaoan (Gao'an: 115.382E 28.416N)
9 War Area

New 3 Army
Yang Hung-kuang
19 Army Group
183 and 12 Divisions
32 Army
Sung Ken-tang

19 Army Group

139 and 141 Divisions
70 Army Chen Kung-ta
19 Army Group
19, 107, and 9 Reserve Divisions
72 Army Han Chuan-pu? Wukungshi (Wushizhen: 113.252E 28.779N)
19 Army Group
New 14, New 15, and 34 Divisions
74 Army Wang Yao-wu
19 Army Group
51, 57, and 58 Divisions. Considered elite, but took heavy losses at Changsha in September 1941.
20 Army Group Ho Kuei-chang Hsiangt'an (Xiangtan: 112.956E 27.784N)
9 War Area
Considered one of the best formations of the Kuomintang Army.
87 Army

20 Army Group
43 and 198 Divisions
27 Army Group Yang Sen Southeast of Tung-chen (Tongchen: 113.808E 29.250N)
9 War Area

20 Army Yang Han-yu Yingchushan (113.081E 28.233N)
27 Army Group
133, 134, and 5 Provisional Divisions
79 Army Hsia Chu-chung Tu-tou-shih (Dutoucun: 113.201E 28.049N)
27 Army Group
6 Provisional and 82 Divisions
30 Army Group Wang Ling-chi Near Kukangchen (Gugangzhen: 113.749E 28.278N)
9 War Area

78 Army

30 Army Group
New 13 and New 16 Divisions
4 Army Ou Chen
9 War Area
59, 90, and 102 Divisions
99 Army Chu Huai-ping? West of Miluo (113.067E 28.806N)
9 War Area
92, 99, 118, and 197 Divisions
New 6 Army
Shen Juicheng

9 War Area
5 Provisional and 6 Provisional Divisions
10 War Area Chiang Ting-wen
In the mountains south of Chinchai (Jinzhai: 115.881E 31.677N) Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in Anhwei and Kiangsu north of the Yangtze River.
34 Army Group
Chiang Ting-wen
10 War Area


1 Army Han Hsi-hou

34 Army Group
1, 78, and 167 Divisions
27 Army Fan Han-chieh?
34 Army Group
4 Provisional and 64 Provisional Divisions
90 Army Li Wen?
34 Army Group
28, 53, and 61 Divisions
16 Army Tung Chao?
10 War Area
109, 1 Reserve, and 3 Reserve Divisions
Shantung-Kiangsu War Area
Yu Hsueh-chung
Nationalist Chinese Army
Eventually split between 10 and 11 War Area
51 Army
Mou Chung-heng
Shantung-Kiangsu War Area
14 Provisional, 113, and 114 Divisions
89 Army
Han Teh-chin?
Shantung-Kiangsu War Area
20 and 62 Provisional Divisions
Hopei-Chahar War Area Lu Chung-lin? Laiyuan? Nationalist Chinese Army
Later redesignated 11 War Area and given responsibility for Hopei and Shantung.
69 Army

Hopei-Chahar War Area
98, 194, and 6 Provisional Divisions
New 1 Army
Sun Li-jen
Activated 1943
4 War Area

American-trained
13 Army Group
Wang Ching-kuo
Activated <1944
2 War Area


40 Army Group
Ma Pu-fang
Activated <1944
8 War Area


12 War Area
Fu Tso-yi
Activated <1945
Nationalist Chinese Army
Took in northern Suiyuan and Inner Mongolia

Replacements

The Kuomintang inducted some 14 million men between 1937 and 1945. However, peak strength never exceeded 6 million men, which gives the reader some idea of the casualty rate (which likely includes a fair number of desertions.) The bulk of the army replacements came from Szechuan (close to half a million conscripts per year towards the end of the war, about a third of all conscripts) and from Hunan (another quarter million recruits per year.)

The following table provides some additional clues on  recruitment versus casualties (Hsiung and Levine 1992):

Number of divisions in combat by year

Year
KMT
Others
Total
Percent KMT
1937
89
164
253
0.35
1938
80
119
199
0.40
1939
130
173
303
0.43
1940
17
42
59
0.29
1941
90
145
235
0.38
1942
34
32
66
0.52
1943
71
93
164
0.43
1944
61
78
139
0.44
1945
44
87
131
0.42


References

Dorn (1974)

Ellis (1993)

Generals.dk (accessed 2008-8-16)

Hsiung and Levine (1992)

Hsu and Chang (1971)

Willmott (1982)



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