The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
|Table of Contents|
|Imperial General Headquarters||Hirohito
General Headquarters was almost completely ineffectual, being divided
into separate Army and Navy sections that were not even located
together. There was no ultimate decision maker short of the Emperor,
who was ill-equipped to fill this role.
|Army General Staff||Sugiyama Gen||Tokyo||Imperial
||Shanghai||Army General Staff||"Osaka." Activated around 1870, and acquired a reputation as an unlucky division lacking in intrepidity.
understrength, with just 11,000
considered this the
worst-equipped division in the
Japanese Army. Its infantry group was composed of 8
Regiment (from Osaka), and 61
Regiment. Redeployed to Luzon 1942-2, where it carried out the assault on Corregidor. Returned to Japan 1943-8,
and redeployed to Sumatra 1944-8
and Thailand 1944-12.
|1 Amphibious Landing Group
||Army General Staff||Exact assignment unknown.
Redesignated as 1 Amphibious
Brigade in 1944-1.
|General Defense Command||Yamada
||Tokyo||Army General Staff|
|Ship Transport Command||General Defense Command||Responsible for the
Army merchant shipping pool
|Northern District Army||Hamamoto Kisaburo
||Obihiro||General Defense Command||Redesignated 5 Area Army on 1944-3-10.
||Northern District Army||"Asahikawa". Activated about 1895. Participated in the Siberian
Intervention in 1918.
The bulk of the division (26 and 27 Regiments) never left Japan.
||Ichiki Detachment, 2328 men. Formed in 1875 and credited with taking 203 Meter Height during the siege of Port Arthur in 1905. Destroyed in the Battle of the Tenaru (Ilu) River at Guadalcanal on 21 August 1942.
|8 Depot Division
||Northern District Army|
|Karafuto Independent Mixed Brigade||Imamura Toyojiro
||Karafuto||Northern District Army|
|Karafuto Reserve Brigade||Karafuto||Northern District Army|
|Chishima Regiment||Kuriles||Northern District Army|
|Central District Army||Fujii
||Osaka||General Defense Command||Redesignated 13 Area Army in 1945-1.
||Kyoto||Central District Army||Activated in the fall of 1940. Mostly older men from the Kyoto area. Composed of 119, 128, and 151 Regiments. Deployed to Burma 1944-1
|54 Division||Katamura Shihachi
||Himeji||Central District Army||Activated 1948-8. Composed of 111, 121, and 154 Regiments. Deployed to Burma 1943-8.
|4 Depot Division||Kan
||Central District Army||Supporting at least 5 divisions and 5 brigades by the end of the war.
|5 Depot Division||Hasegawa Miyoji
||Central District Army||Supporting at least 5 divisions and 3 brigades by the end of the war.
|55 Depot Division||Nagami Shuntoku
||Zentsuji (133.783E 34.233N)
||Central District Army||Supporting at least 3 divisions and 3 brigades by the end of the war.
|1 Air Division||Abe
||Central District Army||A training unit
|64 Independent Infantry Group||Matsuyama Yuzo||Osaka||Central District Army||Deactivated 1944-1 to provide cadre for 49 Division. Consists of 106, 153, and 168 Regiments.|
|13 Air Regiment||Taisho||1 Air Division||9 Ki-27
Participated in the New Georgia, Wewak, and second Philippines campaigns.
|Western District Army||Fujie Keisuke
||Fukuoka||General Defense Command|
|6 Depot Division||Kayashima Taka
||Western District Army||Supporting at least 7 divisions and a brigade by the end of the war.
|56 Depot Division||Sakai Yasushi
||Western District Army||Supporting at least 4 divisions and 2 brigadesby the end of the war.
|66 Independent Infantry Group
||Kumamoto||Western District Army||Composed of 123, 145, and 147 Regiments. Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 46 Division.
|26 Engineer Regiment||Western District Army|
|Eastern District Army||Tanaka Shizuichi
||Tokyo||General Defense Command|
|52 Division||Mugikura Shunsaburo
||Eastern District Army||Activated in the fall of 1940. Composed of 69, 107, and 150 Regiments. Deployed to Truk 1943-12 and never saw combat.
|2 Depot Division||Terakura Shozo
||Eastern District Army||Supporting at least 5 divisions and 6 brigades by the end of the war.
|3 Depot Division||Kushibuchi Senichi
||Eastern District Army||Supporting at least 6 divisions and 4 brigades by the end of the war.
|51 Depot Division||Ueno Kenichiro
||Eastern District Army||Supporting at least 7 divisions and 3 brigades by the end of the war.
|57 Depot Division||Osako Michisada
||Eastern District Army||Supporting at least 5 divisions and 4 brigades by the end of the war.
|Imperial Guards Mixed Brigade||Teshima Fusataro
||Tokyo||Eastern District Army||Or Imperial Guards Depot
Division. Composed of 1 and 2 Imperial Guards Regiments.
|61 Independent Infantry Group||Tokyo||Eastern District Army||Deactivated 1943-3 to provide cadre for 61 Division. Composed of 101, 149, and 157 Regiments.|
|62 Independent Infantry Group
||Eastern District Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 42 Division. Composed of 129, 130, and 158 Regiments.
|63 Independent Infantry Group
||Nagoya||Eastern District Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 43 Division. Composed of 118, 135, and 136 Regiments.
|67 Independent Infantry Group
||Hirosaki||Eastern District Army||Composed of 105, 125, and 131 Regiments. Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 47 Division.|
||Eastern District Army||Existence and assignment uncertain
|17 Air Brigade||Nakanishi Ryosuke
||Chofu||Eastern District Army|
|5 Air Regiment||Kashiwa||17 Air Brigade||25 Ki-27
Participated in western New Guinea campaign.
|144 Air Regiment||Chofu||17 Air Brigade||19 Ki-27
Nate. Redesignated 244 Air Regiment 1942-4
Participated in the Okinawa campaign.
|Korea Army||Nakamura Kotaro
||Seoul||General Defense Command||Redesignated Korea District Army 1945-2-1
|19 Division||Kozuki Yoshio
||Rashin||Korea Army||"Ranan." Activated about 1914-1918. Composed of 73, 75, and 76 Regiments. Redeployed to Luzon 1944-12 and destroyed.
|20 Division||Nagatsu Sadashige
||Pusan||Korea Army||"Keijo." Activated about 1916. Square division. Composed of 77, 78, 79, and 80 Regiments. Redeployed to New Guinea 1943-1 and triangularized 1943-6, giving up 77 Regiment. Suffered heavy casualties in Lae campaign.
|23 Independent Engineer Regiment||Korea Army||Specially trained in river crossing and use of landing craft. It was deployed to 14 Army in time for the Corregidor assault.
||Ando Rikichi||Taipeh||Army General Staff||No combat formations were assigned in December 1941. Redesignated as Formosa District Army 1945-2-1
|China Expeditionary Army||Hata Shunroku
||Nanking||Army General Staff||Controlled all army units in central and southern China. These were the areas of active operations against the Kuomintang.|
|11 Army||Anami Korechika
||Hankow||China Expeditionary Army||Preparing to attack Changsha with 120,000 men supported by
600 artillery pieces and 200 aircraft of 1 Air Brigade.
|3 Division||Takahashi Takaji
Activated around 1873. Composed of 6, 34, and 68 Regiments.
|6 Division||Kanda Masatane
Activated about 1870. Had an excellent reputation as
one of the toughest divisions in the Japanese Army, but was involved in the Rape of Nanking. Redeployed to Bougainville 1943-1 and isolated
for the remainder of the war. Infantry group consisted of 13, 23 and 45 Regiments.
|13 Division||Uchiyama Eitaro
||I'chang||11 Army||Activated about 1905. Recruited from Sendai. Composed of 65, 104, and 116 Regiments.
||Nanchang||11 Army||From Osaka. Activated 1939. Composed of 216, 217, and 218 Regiments.
|39 Division||Sumida Raishiro
||Tangyang (111.789E 30.829N)
||11 Army||From Hiroshima. Activated 1939. Composed of 231, 232, and 233 Regiments. Redeployed to Manchuria 1945-7
||11 Army||Activated 1939. Composed of 234, 235, and 236 Regiments.
|14 Independent Mixed Brigade||Nakayama Tomodu
||Along Kiukiang-Nanchang railroad?||11 Army|
|18 Independent Mixed Brigade||Tsutsumi Fusaki
||11 Army||Deactivated to provide cadre for 56 Division 1942-2
|13 Tank Regiment||11 Army|
|2 Engineer Regiment||11 Army|
|8 Engineer Regiment||11 Army|
|13 Army||Sawada Shigeru
||Shanghai||China Expeditionary Army|
||Wuhu||13 Army||Activated about 1905. Recruited from Kyoto. Composed of 51, 60, and 67 Regiments. Redeployed to Thailand 1943-8, where it was employed mostly in roadbuilding, and to Burma 1944-2.
||Hangchow||13 Army||From Sendai. Activated 1938-12. Composed of 84, 85, and 86 Regiments. Redeployed to French Indochina 1945-1
|116 Division||Takeuchi Toshijiro
||13 Army||Activated early 1938. Square division with brigades shown below. Triangularized 1943-3 with removal of 138 Regiment.
||Composed of 109 and 120 Regiments.|
||116 Division||Composed of 133 and 138 Regiments.|
|11 Independent Mixed Brigade||Tsutsumi Mikio
||West of Shanghai||13 Army||Deactivated 1942-4 to provide cadre for 60 Division.
|12 Independent Mixed Brigade||Nanbu Johkichi
||13 Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 64 Division.|
|13 Independent Mixed Brigade||Akashika Tsutomu
||13 Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 65 Division.
|17 Independent Mixed Brigade||Tagami Hachiro
|20 Independent Mixed Brigade||Nozoe Masanori
||Nanchang||13 Army||Deactivated 1942-4 to provide cadre for 70 Division.
|23 Army||Sakai Takashi
||Canton||China Expeditionary Army|
|51 Division||Nakano Hidemitsu
||23 Army||Activated 1940-8 at Utsunomiya. Composed of 66, 102, and 115 Regiments. Redeployed to New Guinea 1943-1 and destroyed.|
|104 Division||Komoda Koichi
||23 Army||Activated 1938-7. Composed of 108, 137, and 161 Regiments.
|? Independent Mixed Brigade||23 Army|
|19 Independent Mixed Brigade||Matsui Kanichi
|45 Air Regiment||Tien Flo||23 Army||34 Ki-32 Mary
|1 Air Brigade||Mori
||Hankow||China Expeditionary Army||Assigned to support 11 Army at Changsha
|44 Air Regiment||Tien Flo||1 Air Brigade||24 Ki-51 Sonia|
|18 Squadron||Hankow||1 Air Brigade||11 Ki-15 Babs|
|54 Air Regiment||Hankow||1 Air Brigade||12 Ki-27
Nate (at Nanking)
24 Ki-27 Nate (at Hankow)
Participated in the second Philippine and Okinawa campaigns.
|10 Squadron||Hankow||1 Air Brigade||10 Ki-27 Nate|
|8 Air Regiment||Nanchang||1 Air Brigade||12 Ki-51 Sonia|
|83 Squadron||Taiyuan||1 Air Brigade||10 Ki-15 Babs|
|66 Squadron||Hankow||China Expeditionary Army||12 Ki-30 Ann|
|North China Area Army||Okamura Yasutsuga
||Peiping||Army General Staff||Controlled army units in north China, where there were no active operations against the Kuomintang. However, antiguerrilla operations against Mao's Chinese Communists were ongoing.|
|27 Division||Tominaga Nobusama
||North China Area Army||From Tokyo. Activated 1939. Composed of 1, 2, and 3 China Garrison Regiments.
|35 Division||Harada Kumakichi
||Kaifeng (114.3E 34.8N)
||North China Area Army||Activated 1939-2. Composed of 219, 220, and 221 Regiments. Redeployed to New Guinea 1944-4 and destroyed.
|110 Division||Yamada Tetsujirou
||North China Area Army||Square division. Composed of 108 Brigade (139 and 140 Regiments) and 133 Brigade (110 and 163 Regiments.) Triangularized by 1942-4 by detachment of 140 Regiment.
|1 Independent Mixed
||Suzuki Teiji||Along Peiping-Hankow railroad
||North China Area Army||Originally
an experimental combined arms formation with a large tank component,
but most of the armor was pulled from the brigade in 1938.
|7 Independent Mixed Brigade||Hayashi Yoshitaro
||North China Area Army||Deactivated 1944-7 to provide cadre for 115 Division
|8 Independent Mixed Brigade||Between Peiping and Tientsin
||North China Area Army|
|15 Brigade||Fukei Shinpei
||North China Area Army|
|15 Tank Regiment||North China Area Army|
|1 Army||Iwamatsu Yoshio
||Taiyuan||North China Area Army|
|36 Division||Izeki Mitsuru
||south of Taiyuan||1 Army||From Hirosaki. Activated 1939-2 and regarded by 1943 as a crack division. Composed of 222, 223, and 224 Regiments. Redeployed to New Guinea 1943-12 and destroyed.
|37 Division||Nagano Yuichiro
||1 Army||From Kumamoto. Activated 1939-3. Composed of 225, 226, and 227 Regiments. Redeployed to French Indochina 1945-1
|41 Division||Shimizu Tsunenori
||Tsingtao||1 Army||From Utsunomiya. Activated 1939. Composed of 237, 238, and 239 Regiments. Redeployed to New Guinea 1943-2 and destroyed.
|3 Independent Mixed Brigade||Mori
||Paoteh (111.127E 39.017N)
|5 Independent Mixed Brigade||Uchida Ginnosuke||Between Tsingtao and Weihsien||1 Army|
|6 Independent Mixed Brigade||Iwai Torajiro||Along Tientsin-Pukov railroad||1 Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 62 and 63 Divisions.|
|9 Independent Mixed Brigade||Ikenoue Kenkichi
||Hankow||1 Army||Participated in third Changsha campaign
|16 Independent Mixed Brigade||Wakamatsu Heiji
||Taiyuan||1 Army||Deactivated 1942-4 to provide cadre for 69 Division.
|12 Army||Tsuchihashi Kazutsugu
||Tsinan||North China Area Army|
|17 Division||Hirabayashi Morito
||12 Army||"Kimeji." Activated around 1905-1908. Composed of 53 54, and 81 Regiments. Redeployed to New Britain 1943-9. Reorganized in 1943 or 1944, dropping 81 Regiment and activating 2 and 6 Mixed Regiments from local units to give a square structure.
||12 Army||Activated 1939-2. Composed of 210, 211, and 212 Regiments. Redeployed to Halmahera 1944-4
|4 Independent Mixed Brigade||Tsuda Yoshitake||Along Chengtain railway in Shansi||12 Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 62 Division.|
|10 Independent Mixed Brigade||Shantung
||12 Army||Deactivated 1942-2 to provide cadre for 59 Division.
|15 Independent Mixed Brigade||Tanaka Tsutomu||West of Peiping||12 Army||Deactivated 1943-6 to provide cadre for 63 Division.|
|Mongol Army||Akamasu Shigetaro
||Kalgan||North China Area Army||Or Mongolia Garrison Army. A puppet formation
||Mongol Army||Nine divisions of puppet cavalry
|26 Division||Yano Otosaburo
||Mongol Army||From Nagoya. Activated 1939-7. Redeployed to Philippines 1944-8 and
destroyed at Leyte by 1944-12. The infantry group is listed by some sources as 26 Brigade, and it consisted of 11, 12, and 13 Independent Regiments.
|4 Cavalry Brigade
||Mongol Army||Japanese cavalry. Remained on horseback until the final surrender.
|2 Independent Mixed Brigade||Mano Goro||Kalgan||Mongol Army||Assigned to 109 Division 1944-2 and destroyed in the battle of Iwo Jima
|Kwantung Army||Umezu Yoshijiro
||Changchun||Army General Staff|
|Manchurian Area Army||Changchun||Kwantung
||Manchurian Area Army||"Himeji."
Activated about 1895. Composed of 10, 39, and 63 Regiments. This division got clobbered at
Taierhchuang in 1938. It was destroyed again after redeploying to Luzon 1944-11.
|28 Division||Ishiguro Teizo
||Manchurian Area Army||From Tokyo. Activated 1940-8. Composed of 3, 30, and 36 Regiments. Redeployed to Ryukyu Islands 1944-7. Never saw
|29 Division||Uemura Toshimichi
||Liaoyang (123.183E 41.267N)
||Manchurian Area Army||From Nagoya. Activated 1941-8. Composed of 18, 38 and 50 Regiments. Redeployed to Marianas 1944-2 and destroyed on
Allied intelligence believed this division had the experimental
"regimental combat team" organization, with artillery and other heavy
weapons permanently distributed to the individual regiments.
|Kwantung Defense Army||Kusaba Tatsumi
||Manchurian Area Army||Redesignated 44
|Kwantung Air Brigade||Mukden||Manchurian Area Army||36 Ki-57 Topsy|
|3 Army||Kawabe Masakazu
||Yeho (130.430E 45.398N)
|9 Division||Higuchi Kiichiro
||Yeho (130.430E 45.398N)||3 Army||"Kanazawa". Activated 1895. Composed of 7, 19, and 35 Regiments.
A veteran division that participated in the First Shanghai Incident.
Moved to Okinawa in 1944-2 and to Formosa in 1945-2. Never saw combat in the Pacific.
|12 Division||Kasahara Yukio
||3 Army||"Kurume." Activated about 1895. From southern Kyushu. Composed of 24, 46, and 48 Regiments. Participated in the Siberian Intervention in 1918. Regarded as an elite division.
Redeployed to Formosa 1944-11. Never saw combat.
|1 Tank Group||Yamada Kunitaro
||3 Army||Composed of 3, 5,
Tank Regiments. Absorbed into 1 Armored Division 1942-8.
|9 Engineer Regiment||3 Army|
|27 Engineer Regiment||3 Army|
|4 Army||Yokoyama Isamu
|1 Division||Nakazawa Mitsuo
||Beian||4 Army||"Tokyo". Activated around 1870. "Exiled" to Manchuria in 1936 for its part in the attempted coup d'état
of 26 February 1936. Composed of 1, 49, and 57 Regiments.
Redeployed to the Philippines 1944-9 and destroyed in the Leyte campaign by 1945-1.
|14 Division||Kawanami Mitsu
||Tsitsihar||4 Army||"Utsunomiya". Activated 1905. Composed of 2, 15, and 59 Regiments. Redeployed to Palaus 1944-4 and
|57 Division||Osako Michisada
||Beian||4 Army||Activated 1940-8. Composed of 52, 117, and 132 Regiments. Returned to Japan 1945-4
|1 Border Guard Brigade
||Okamoto Yasayuki||4 Army|
|5 Border Guard Brigade||Holomoching
|6 Border Guard Brigade||Nencheng
|7 Border Guard Brigade||4 Army|
|8 Border Guard Brigade||4 Army||Manchurian puppet troops. Participated in the Nomonhan campaign.
|13 Border Guard Brigade||4 Army|
|11 Division||Takamori Takashi
||Hulin (132.950E 45.764N)
||5 Army||"Zentsuji." Activated 1895. Recruited from Shikoku. Composed of 12, 43, and 44 Regiments. 44 Regiment was recruited from Kochi and saw combat at Shanghai.
Returned to Japan 1945-4 and saw no combat thereafter.
|24 Division||Nemoto Hiroshi
||Tungan||5 Army||From Asahigawa. Activated 1940-8. Composed of 22, 32, and 89 Regiments. Redeployed to Okinawa 1944-4 and destroyed.
|2 Tank Group||Yamaji
11 Tank Regiments. Absorbed into 2 Armored Division 1942-6.
|4 Border Guards Brigade||5 Army|
|6 Border Guards Brigade||5 Army|
|12 Border Guards Brigade||5 Army|
|3 Cavalry Brigade||Kataoka Tadasu
||Paoching (132.211E 46.332N)
||5 Army||Deactivated 1945-2-28
|7 Engineer Regiment||5 Army|
|22 Engineer Regiment||5 Army|
|24 Engineer Regiment||5 Army|
|23 Division||Nishihara Kanji
||Hailar||6 Army||Activated 1938-7. Composed of 64, 71, and 72 Regiments. Nearly destroyed at Nomonhan. Redeployed to Luzon 1944-11 and destroyed.
||Kwantung Army||Relocated to Hengyang by 1945.
||Suiyang||20 Army||"Hirosaki." Activated 1895. Recruited from
northern Honshu. Composed of 5, 17, and 31 Regiments.
Redeployed to Luzon 1944-8 and destroyed in the second Philippines campaign.
|25 Division||Akashiba Yaezo
||20 Army||From Osaka. Activated 1940-8. Composed of 14, 40, and 70 Regiments. Returned to Japan 1945-3
|2 Border Guards Brigade||20 Army|
|3 Border Guards Brigade||20 Army|
|10 Border Guards Brigade||20 Army|
|11 Border Guards Brigade||20 Army|
|2 Air Division||Teramoto Kumaichi
|2 Air Brigade||Nakamura Yoshiaki
||Chiamussu||2 Air Division|
|6 Light Air Regiment||Chiamussu||2 Air Brigade||27 Ki-57 Topsy|
|9 Air Regiment||Pyongyang||2 Air Brigade||36 Ki-27 Nate
Spent most of the war in China. The most successful fighter unit versus the B-29 in China.
|65 Light Air Regiment||Tunhua||2 Air Brigade||36 Ki-30 Ann|
|8 Air Brigade||Tazoe
||2 Air Division||Redesignated 8 Air Division on 1942-6-1.
|32 Light Air Regiment||Tunhua||8 Air Brigade||27 Ki-32 Mary|
|33 Air Regiment||Hsingshu||8 Air Brigade||36 Ki-27 Nate
Participated in Burma, New Guinea, and second Philippine campaigns. Took heavy losses in New Guinea.
|58 Heavy Air Regiment||Sui-hua
||8 Air Brigade||27 Ki-21 Sally|
|9 Air Brigade||Hashimoto Hidenobu
||Tsitsihar||2 Air Division||Redesignated 9 Air Division in 1944-8.
|6 Heavy Air Regiment||Hailar||9 Air Brigade||27 Ki-21 Sally|
|7 Heavy Air Regiment||Kungchunling||9 Air Brigade||27 Ki-21 Sally|
|13 Air Brigade||Hailang||2 Air Division|
|70 Air Regiment||Tungchingcheng||13 Air Brigade||36 Ki-27 Nate|
|85 Air Regiment||Hailang||13 Air Brigade||36 Ki-27 Nate
Participated in Ichi-go campaign
|87 Air Regiment||Tuanshanzi||13 Air Brigade||36 Ki-27 Nate
Participated in second Burma and Palembang campaigns
|28 Independent Air Regiment||Hailang||2 Air Division||20 Ki-15 Babs|
|Southern Expeditionary Army||Terauchi Hisaichi||Saigon||Army General Staff||Responsible for executing the
operations of the Centrifugal
Offensive by which Japan hoped to seize southeast Asia before
could react. This offensive was completely successful,
achieving all of its objectives ahead of schedule and at smaller loss
than anticipated. Subsequently renamed Southern
|1 Parachute Brigade "Dash Forward"||Nyutabaru, Kyushu||Southern Expeditionary Army||Deployed to Southeast Asia in December 1941 following the outbreak of war.|
|1 Parchute Regiment||Chiai||1 Parachute Brigade||Also known as 1 Raiding Regiment.
|2 Parachute Regiment||Saigon||1 Parachute Brigade||Also known as 2 Raiding Regiment. Conducted airborne attack on Palembang|
|21 Division||Tanaka Hisaichi
||Hanoi||Southern Expeditionary Army||From Kanazawa. Activated 1938-7. Composed of 62, 82, and 83 Regiments. Had seen two years'
China. Redeployed to Indochina
|38 Division||Sano Tadayoshi
||near Hong Kong||Southern Expeditionary Army||From Nagoya.
Activated 1939-2. 20,000
motorized transport. Infantry group consisted of 228,
229, and 230
Assigned to Southern
Expeditionary Army from 23
for the attack on Hong Kong. The commander of 23
Army, Sakai Takashi,
have personally supervised the Hong Kong operation. Redeployed to Netherlands East Indies
1942-1, Guadalcanal 1942-10, and New Britain 1943-2. Reorganized 1944-7, dropping 230 Regiment and replacing it with 3 Mixed Regiment.
|21 Independent Mixed Brigade||Yamagata Kurihanao
||Southern Expeditionary Army||Eventually committed to New Guinea.|
|21 Air Regiment||Gia Lam||Southern Expeditionary Army||May not have been activated until 1942-10, but was formed from units listed below. Participated in the first Philippines, second Burma, and Morotai campaigns.|
|82 Light Squadron||Tien Flo||21 Air Regiment||12 Ki-48 Lily|
|84 Squadron||Nha Trang||21 Air Regiment||9 Ki-27 Nate|
|83 Air Regiment||Sanya||Southern Expeditionary Army|
|71 Squadron||Sanya||83 Air Regiment||10 Ki-51 Sonia|
|73 Squadron||Sanya||83 Air Regiment||9 Ki-51 Sonia|
|89 Squadron||Dau Mot||83 Air Regiment||12 Ki-32 Mary|
|7 Air Regiment||Chiai||Southern Expeditionary Army||Transport for 1 Parachute Brigade?|
|1 Squadron||Chiai||7 Air Regiment||6 Ki-59 Theresa|
|2 Squadron||Chiai||7 Air Regiment||6 Ki-59 Theresa|
|13 Squadron||Chiai||7 Air Regiment||12 Ki-57
Topsy (at Chiai)
6 Ki-59 Theresa (at Dau Mot)
|10 Independent Air Squadron||Tien Flo||Southern Expeditionary Army||Ki-27
Nate. Redesignated 25 Air Regiment 1942-10.|
Participated in the Hong Kong and Ichi-go campaigns.
|47 Squadron||Saigon||Southern Expeditionary Army||9 Ki-44
Tojo. Experimental squadron testing the new aircraft design. Redesignated 47 Air Regiment 1943-10.
Participated in Malaya, Burma, and Okinawa campaigns.
|14 Army||Homma Masaharu
||Southern Expeditionary Army||Responsible
for taking the Philippines.
14 Area Army on 1944-7-28.
|16 Division||Morioka Susumu
||14 Army||Lamon Bay Force||"Kyoto."
Activated about 1905. Participated
the Rape of Nanking.
The infantry group consisted of 20 Regiment plus those listed below. The main body embarked with Lamon Bay Force numbered about 9000 men. This division had been recently triangularized and had not seen recent combat. Homma did not rate it very highly. Destroyed at Leyte in 1944-12.
||16 Division||Lingayen Gulf Force||Kamijima
|33 Regiment||16 Division||4
Surprise Attack Force
men). Responsible for seizing Legaspi. Included the
infantry group headquarters from 16
Division. One battalion from the regiment was with the division
body at Naze.
|48 Division||Tsuchihashi Yuitsu
||14 Army||Lingayen Gulf Force||Composed of 1 and 2 Formosa Regiments and 47 Regiment. Formed in late 1940 in Formosa
and lacked battle
experience, but Homma still considered it the best division in 14
It was partially motorized and reinforced with artillery. Redeployed to
Celebes and Timor 1942-4.
|2 Formosa Regiment||48
Surprise Attack Force
Battalion, 2 Formosa Regiment
Surprise Attack Force
||Reinforced to 2200 men|
||Magong||14 Army||"Summer." From Hiroshima.
reservists. Considered totally unprepared for combat by its
commander. Intended for garrison duty. Composed of 122, 141, and 142
|4 Tank Regiment||14 Army||48 Division||Equipped with light tanks.|
|7 Tank Regiment||14 Army||48 Division||80-100 tanks, including "heavy" 13-ton tanks.|
|3 Independent Engineer Regiment||Takao||14 Army|
|21 Independent Engineer Regiment||14 Army||3 Surprise Attack Force|
||14 Army||3 Surprise Attack Force|
||Phnom Penh?||Southern Expeditionary Army||Responsible for taking Burma.|
|33 Division||Sakurai Shozo
||15 Army||Activated 1939-3. Composed of 213, 214, and 215 Regiments. From Sendai|
|55 Division||Takeuchi Hiroshi
||on Thai border||15 Army||From Shikoku. Activated 1940-8. Composed of 112 Regiment; 143 Regiment, which was assigned to 25 Army; and 144 Regiment which was assigned to Imperial General Headquarters with the infantry group headquarters, 55 Brigade Group|
|16 Army||Imamura Hitoshi
||Tokyo||Southern Expeditionary Army||Responsible for taking the Netherlands East Indies. Would not deploy to the combat zone until the Philippines and Singapore were isolated.|
|2 Division||Maruyama Masao
||Cam Ranh||16 Army||"Sendai."
Activated around 1870, and acquired a regional stereotype as solid and
imperturbable but sluggish on the offensive. Composed of 4, 16,
Regiments. Redeployed to Guadalcanal
1942-9 and nearly
destroyed. Rebuilt and redeployed to southeast Asia 1945-1. Part of the
committed to Burma 1945-3.
|25 Army||Yamashita Tomoyuki
||Cam Ranh||Southern Expeditionary Army||Responsible for taking Malaya|
|5 Division||Matsui Takuro
||25 Army||Singora Attack Force||"Hiroshima."
Activated in 1873. One of the finest and
most heavily mechanized divisions in the Japanese Army with specialist
training in amphibious assault and experience with the Hangchow landings.
largest, since it was still a square division.
Three of its four regiments were assigned to land at Singora
and the fourth at Patani and drive
down the west coast of Malaya. Redeployed to the Netherlands East Indies
||5 Division||Singora Attack Force|
||Cam Ranh||9 Brigade
||Would deploy as second echelon
to Singora by 1941-12-16.
||Singora Attack Force||Recruited from Fukuyama. Formed the vanguard of 5
Division at Singora. Detached for
service in the Philippines
in early 1942, which had the effect of triangularizing 5 Division.
||Cam Ranh||5 Division|
||Did not deploy to Thailand until January 1942.
|42 Regiment||21 Brigade||Patani Attack Force||Responsible for securing Patani.|
|18 Division||Mutaguchi Renya
From Kurume. Activated about 1905-1906 and considered itself one of the
best divisions in the Japanese Army. Had considerable
in China and had specialist training in amphibious assault. A square
division, but one of its brigade headquarters was detached
with one regiment to operate under 16
Army, leaving the other brigade headquarters and three regiments
with the main body of the
division. Redeployed to Burma 1942-4. Formally triangularized 1943-4.
|56 Regiment||23 Brigade||Kota
||Responsible for seizing Kota Baharu.|
||Canton||18 Division||Southern Expeditionary Army||Kawaguchi Detachment was built
around the brigade headquarters and 124
Regiment and was responsible for seizing points in west Borneo: Miri,
Kuching, Brunei. It later fought at Guadalcanal.
||18 Division||In reserve for probable
deployment to Malaya.
||Formally detached from 18
|56 Division||Watanabe Masao
||Fukuoka||25 Army||From Fukuoka and Nagasaki. This
division was newly activated and the brigade designated to become its
infantry group (56
Brigade) was operating
Yamashita left the headquarters
in Japan, where it was effectively
part of the
area army reserve. Deployed to Burma
1941-12, by which time it had been assigned 113 and 148 Regiments.
|56 Brigade||Sakaguchi Shizuo||Palau||56 Division||16 Army||Designated to become the
infantry group of 56
Built around the brigade headquarters and 146
|Imperial Guards Division||Nishimura Takuma
||on Thai border||25 Army||
Organized 1871-3 from 6200 samurai as the nucleus of the
modern Japanese Army.
Infantry group consisted of 3, 4 and 5 Imperial Guards Regiments. Responsible for securing Thailand and the Kra Peninsula before joining the rest of 25 Army in Malaya. Redesignated 2 Imperial Guards Division on 1943-6, likely as a calculated insult for its behavior in Malaya.
|3 Tank Group||25 Army||Amounted to a full armored division, with four regiments. Three regiments (1, 2, and 6) were equipped with 37 M-97 and 20 M-95 tanks; the 14 Tank Regiment was equipped with 45 M-95 tanks.|
|143 Regiment||off Kra Isthmus
||55 Division||25 Army||Detailed from its parent division to seize points along the Kra Isthmus. The regimental headquarters was embarked on a transport off Prachuap.Two battalions were embarked in two transports and one cargo ship off Jumbhorn. A third battalion was embarked in three transports off Nakhorn.|
|5 Independent Engineer Regiment||25 Army|
|14 Independent Engineer Regiment
||25 Army||Later reassigned to South Seas Detachment
|3 Air Division||Sugawara Michio
||Kompong Trach||Southern Expeditionary Army|
|3 Air Brigade||Endo
||Kompong Trach||3 Air Division|
|27 Light Air Regiment||Kompong Chanang||3 Air Brigade||23 Ki-51 Sonia|
|59 Air Regiment||Kompong Trach||3 Air Brigade||21 Ki-43 Oscar
Participated in the Malaya, Netherlands East Indies, New Guinea, and Okinawa campaigns.
|75 Light Air Regiment||Kompong Trach||3 Air Brigade||25 Ki-48 Lily|
|90 Light Air Regiment||Kompong Trach||3 Air Brigade||25 Ki-48 Lily|
|7 Air Brigade||Yamamoto Kenji
||Phnom Penh||3 Air Division|
|12 Heavy Air Regiment||Phnom Penh||7 Air Brigade||21 Ki-21
|60 Heavy Air Regiment||Phnom Penh||7 Air Brigade||39 Ki-21 Sally|
|51 Recon Squadron||Phnom Penh||7 Air Brigade||3 Ki-15
3 Ki-46 Dinah
|64 Air Regiment||Duong Dong||7 Air Brigade||6 Ki-27
35 Ki-43 Oscar
Participated in Malaya, Netherlands East Indies and Burma campaigns
|98 Heavy Air Regiment||Saigon||7 Air Brigade||42 Ki-21 Sally|
|10 Air Brigade||Hirotaka Yutaka
||Krakor||3 Air Division|
|31 Light Air Regiment||Siem Reap||10 Air Brigade||24 Ki-30
|77 Air Regiment||Siem Reap||10 Air Brigade||27 Ki-27
Participated in Thailand, Burma, and New Guinea campaigns. Annihilated at Wewak.
|62 Heavy Air Regiment||Krakor||10 Air Brigade||22 Ki-21 Sally|
|70 Recon Squadron||Krakor||10 Air Brigade||8 Ki-15 Babs|
|12 Air Brigade||Aoki
||Phiquoc||3 Air Division|
|1 Air Regiment||Kompong Trach||12 Air Brigade||42 Ki-27
Participated in the Malaya, first Burma, New Georgia, Wewak, and second Philippines campaigns.
|11 Air Regiment||Phiquoc||12 Air Brigade||39 Ki-27
Participated in the Malaya, first Burma, New Georgia, Wewak, and second Philippines campaigns.
|50 Recon Squadron||Kompong Trach||3 Air Division||3 Ki-15
2 Ki-46 Dinah
|81 Recon Squadron||Phnom Penh||3 Air Division||9 Ki-15
7 Ki-46 Dinah
|5 Air Division||Obata Hideyoshi
||Heito||Southern Expeditionary Army||There is significant disagreement among various sources on the composition of this unit. We use the composition given by Francillon (1979).|
|4 Air Brigade||Kawahara Toshiaki
||Chiai||5 Air Division||Redesignated 4 Air Division in 1943.
|8 Light Air Regiment||Chiai||4 Air Brigade||27 Ki-48
9 Ki-15 Babs
2 Ki-46 Dinah
|14 Heavy Air Regiment||Chiai||4 Air Brigade||18 Ki-21 Sally|
|16 Light Air Regiment||Chiai||4 Air Brigade||27 Ki-30 Ann|
|50 Air Regiment||Hengchun||4 Air Brigade||36 Ki-27
Participated in the first Philippine, Burma, and New Guinea campaigns
|52 Recon Squadron||Heito||10 Independent Air Squadron||13 Ki-51 Sonia|
|74 Recon Squadron||Heito||10 Independent Air Squadron||10 Ki-36 Ida|
|76 Recon Squadron||Heito||10 Independent Air Squadron||9 Ki-15
2 Ki-46 Dinah
||Taichu||5 Air Division||9 Ki-57 Topsy|
|12 Air Transport Squadron||Phnom Penh||5 Air Division||9 Ki-57 Topsy. Not given in Francillon, but identified by Rottman and Takizawa (2005) as part of the parachute transport force.|
|4 Air Regiment
||Heito||5 Air Division||Strength unknown, but equipped with Ki-27
Nate. Repeatedly raided for cadre and saw very little front-line service until the final homeland defense.
|24 Air Regiment||Heito||5 Air Division||36 Ki-27
Participated in the first Philippines, Wewak, Biak, Morotai, second Philippines, and Okinawa campaigns. Suffered heavily in both the Biak and Morotai campaigns.
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