graduate

Luzon

Relief
        map of Luzon

Luzon is the northernmost and largest of the Philippine Islands, extending about 340 miles (550 km) from north to south with an area of 40,814 square miles (105,707 km2). It is characterized by three north-south mountain ranges separated by broad alluvial plains. The Sierra Madre along the upper east coast reaches to 6188' (1886 meters) and is separated from the Cordillera Mountains to the west by the Cagayan river valley, which is the second most important agricultural area in the Philippines. The Cordilleras reach to 9613' (2930 meters) and are separated from the Caraballo Mountains to the southwest by the central Luzon plain, which is the most productive agricultural area in the Philippines. The Caraballo Mountains reach to 6686' (2038 meters) and their southern extension forms the Bataan Peninsula. To the southeast of the main body of the island is the Legaspi Peninsula, which was largely undeveloped jungle in 1941.

Luzon was the most populous and developed of the Philippine Islands in 1941, with a population of 7,384,798 persons. There was a good road network and over 700 miles (1100 km) of railroads, and most towns were connected by telephone and telegraph. The island includes the superb harbor of Manila Bay, which was protected in 1941 by the Corregidor island fortress complex and several airfields, including Clark Field. The island produces sugar (about 1.3 million tons a year in 1941) and rice, with the most productive regions being the central plain north of Manila Bay and the Cagayen Valley in the northeastern part of the island. Chromium and manganese are mined in the Zambales Mountains along the west coast.


The first Luzon campaign

The Japanese opened the first Luzon campaign with landings at Legaspi on 12 December 1941. This completed the blockade of Luzon and paved the way for the main landings at Lingayen Gulf on the northwest coast of the island on 22 December and secondary landings at Lamon Bay on the east coast near Manila on 24 December. The forces landed at Lingayen Gulf (all from 14 Army) included the bulk of 48 Division; 20 Regiment, 16 Division; and 4 Tank Regiment, while the landings at Lamon Bay were carried out by the remaining elements of 16 Division (7000 men.) 

Both landings were only weakly opposed. 71 Regiment had been ordered to block the movement of 2 Formosa Regiment south from Vigan and Aparri, but was nearly trapped by the Lingayen Gulf landings, escaped to Baguio, and ended moving east and out of the battle.

The Japanese plan was for 48 Division to raced south, leaving only 9 Regiment to mop up and secure its communications, while the elements of 16 Division at Lamon Bay were to advance south to Taybas Bay to cut Luzon in half, then advance on Manila. Once the main battle was won, 48 Division would be redeployed against the Netherland East Indies while 65 Brigade completed mopping up and 16 Division reduced the Visayas and Mindanao.

Faced with a pincers movement, MacArthur decided to retreat to Bataan. In order to buy enough time to get South Luzon Force through Manila before the pincers closed, MacArthur ordered North Luzon Force to hold five successive lines across the central Luzon plain. The plan worked successfully and over 100,000 men were moved into Bataan before Homma, whose attention had been fixed on Manila, realized what was afoot. The last American and Filipino forces withdrew into the peninsula on 5 January 1942.

By 9 January Homma had redeployed his troops to attack the American positions. Although the American line on the western side of the peninsula held, the eastern line was penetrated, and by 24 January the Americans were forced back to their second defense line. This was assaulted in strength on 3 April, after careful preparation, and the American lines were quickly pierced. General King, the commander of Allied forces on Bataan, was forced to surrender on 9 April 1942. 75,000 sick and starving prisoners of war were marched to camps in central Luzon, 100 miles away, in what became known as the Bataan Death March. Thousands of prisoners died of mistreatment along the way, making this the single greatest atrocity committed against American troops during the war.

Japanese order of battle, 12 December 1941

14 Army (Homma)

16 Division (Morioka; at Naze)
From Kyoto. This division had been recently triangularized and had not seen recent combat. Homma did not rate it very highly. Those elements not detached to Magong or Palau were embarked with the Lamon Bay Force.


9 Regiment



20 Regiment
At Magong


33 Regiment
Two of its battalions were at Palau (Kimura Detachment)

48 Division (Tsuchihashi; at Magong) Embarked with Lingayen Gulf Force. Formed in 1940 in Formosa and lacked battle experience, but Homma still considered it the best division in 14 Army. It was partially motorized and reinforced with artillery.

65 Brigade (Nara; at Magong) From Hiroshima. 6500 mostly older reservists. Considered totally unprepared for combat by its own commander. Intended for garrison duty.

4 Tank Regiment (at Magong)
Light tanks. Attached to 20 Regiment, 16 Division.

7 Tank Regiment (at Magong) 80-100 tanks, including "heavy" 13-ton tanks. Attached to 48 Division.

3 Engineer Regiment (at Takao)

21 Engineer Regiment (at Magong)
5 Air Division (Obata, at Heito) There is significant disagreement among various sources on the composition of 5 Air Division. We use the composition given by Francillon (1979).

4 Air Brigade (Kawahara; at Chiai)


8 Light Air Regiment



27 Ki-48 Lily



9 Ki-15 Babs



2 Ki-46 Dinah


14 Heavy Air Regiment



18 Ki-21 Sally


16 Light Air Regiment



27 Ki-30 Ann


50 Air Regiment (Hengchun)



36 Ki-27 Nate

10 Independent Air Squadron (at Heito)


52 Reconnaissance Squadron



13 Ki-51 Sonia


74 Reconnaissance Squadron



10 Ki-36 Ida


76 Reconnaissance Squadron



9 Ki-15 Babs



2 Ki-46 Dinah

11 Air Transport Squadron (at Taichu)


9 Ki-57 Topsy

24 Air Regiment (at Heito)


36 Ki-27 Nate

3 Fleet (Takahashi)
 
Close Covering Force (Takahashi; at Magong)     


  Cruiser Division 16 (Takahashi)


  CA Ashigara



CA Maya On loan from CruDiv4, Second Fleet



CL Kuma


Elements, Seaplane Tender Squadron 12 (Imamura S.)



AV Sanyo Maru




4 F1M2 Pete
2 E8N Dave
2 E13A Jake




AV Sanuki Maru




4 F1M2 Pete
2 E8N Dave
2 E13A Jake



Elements, Destroyer Squadron 5



Elements, Destroyer Division 5



  DD Asakaze




DD Matsukaze  


1 Surprise Attack Force (Hara; at Magong) Responsible for seizing Appari.

  Elements, Destroyer Squadron 5 (Hara)


  CL Natori



Elements, Destroyer Division 5



  DD Harukaze




DD Hatakaze



Destroyer Division 22




DD Fumizuki




DD Minazuki




DD Nagatsuki




DD Satsuki


2 Base Force (Hirose; at Takao)



Elements, Minesweeper Division 11




DMS W-15




DMS W-16



Elements, Minesweeper Division 30




DMS W-19


Submarine Chaser Division 1




SC Ch-1




SC Ch-2




SC Ch-3



6 other submarine chasers


AP Arizona Maru (9684 tons, 14 knots)


5 other AP All transports assigned to this force were capable of 12-14 knots.


2 Formosa Regiment less one battalion (2200 men)       Tanaka Detachment, 48 Division

2 Surprise Attack Force (Nishimura; at Magong) Assigned to capture Vigan


Elements, Destroyer Squadron 4
On loan from 2 Fleet



CL Naka (Nishimura)



Destroyer Division 2




DD Harusame




DD Murasame




DD Samidare




DD Yudachi



Elements, Destroyer Division 9




DD Asagumo




DD Minegumo




DD Natsugumo

  Elements, 1 Base Force


  Elements, Minesweeper Division 21




DMS W-9




DMS W-10




DMS W-11?




DMS W-12


Elements, 2 Base Force



Elements, Minesweeper Division 30




DMS W-17




DMS W-18


9 submarine chasers


AP Oigawa Maru (6500 tons)


AP Takao Maru (4282 tons, 15 knots)


AP Hawaii Maru (9467 tons, 14 knots)


3 other AP  


3 Battalion, 2 Formosa Regiment (reinforced), 2200 men      

3 Surprise Attack Force (Hirose; at Magong)     
Responsible for securing Batan Island

  DD Yamagumo On loan from DesRon4, Second Fleet


Elements, 2 Base Force (at Takao)      



Torpedo Boat Division 21




PT Chidori




PT Hatsukari




PT Manazuru




PT Tomozuru



Elements, Minesweeper Division 11





DMS W-13




DMS W-14


2 PG



9 SC


2 PB



AP Hayo Maru (5446 tons, 9.5 knots)


AP Kumakawa Maru


21 Engineer Regiment 14 Army


24 Airfield Battalion

Lamon Bay Force (at Naze)

  Elements, 1 Base Force



Subchaser Division 52




PC Shonan Maru #17 (356 tons)




PC Takunan Maru #5 (340 tons)




AN Fukuei Maru #17 (940 tons)


2 Base Force (Hirose; at Takao)



Elements, Gunboat Division 2?




PG Kamitsu Maru (2721 tons)




PG Okuyo Maru




PG Taiko Maru



Gunboat Division 3?




PG Aso Maru (703 tons)




PG Kiso Maru




PG Nanpo Maru


3 other SC


24 AP


Main body, 16 Division (20 and 33 Regiments; 9000 men)       Homma did not rate this division very highly, although it had served in China and Manchuria.


4 Tank Regiment Equipped with light tanks

4 Surprise Attack Force (Kubo; at Palau) Responsible for seizing Legaspi

  Elements, Destroyer Squadron 4 On loan from Second Fleet


  CL Nagara



Destroyer Division 24



  DD Yamakaze




DD Suzukaze




DD Umikaze




DD Kawakaze



Destroyer Division 16 On loan from DesRon2




DD Yukikaze




DD Tokitsukaze


Elements, Seaplane Tender Division 11 (Fujita) On loan from Combined Fleet



CVS Chitose




16 F1M Pete
4 E13A Jake




CVS Mizuho




16 F1M Pete
4 E13A Jake



AM W-7




AM W-8


2 PC



5 other small ships



7 AP


Elements, 32 Special Base Force



1 Kure SNLF (with Fourth Surprise Attack Force)      


33 Regiment (3200 men) Kimura Force; from 16 Division



22 Field Artillery Regiment

Legaspi Support Force (Takagi; closing on Legaspi)      

  CV Ryujo (Kakuta) On loan from CarDiv1, First Air Fleet


  22 A5M Claude
18 B5N Kate



Cruiser Division 5 On loan from Second Fleet



CA Haguro



CA Myoko



CA Nachi


Elements, Destroyer Squadron 2 (Tanaka) On loan from Second Fleet



CL Jintsu



DD Shiokaze



Elements, Destroyer Division 16



  DD Amatsukaze




DD Hatsukaze



Destroyer Division 15




DD Hayashio




DD Kuroshio




DD Natsushio




DD Oyashio

Allied order of battle, 12 December 1941

USAFFE (MacArthur; at Manila)

North Luzon Force (Wainright; at Fort Stotsenburg)

  11 Division (Townsend; SE coast of Lingayen Gulf)       One battalion at Tuguegarao and a company at Aparri


21 Division (Capinin; south coast of Lingayen Gulf)


31 Division (Bluemel; west coast of Luzon)


71 Division (Selleck; north Luzon Plain)


26 Cavalry Regiment 842 men of the Philippine Scouts


1 Battalion, 45 Infantry Regiment (at Mariveles) From Philippine Division

South Luzon Force (Parker; at Fort McKinley)


41 Division (Lim; south Luzon coast) Large than most Philippine divisions (8000 men) and relatively well-trained.


51 Division (Jones; at Lamon Bay) Performed badly during the Bataan campaign

Reserve Force (Moore; at Fort Stotsenburg)


43 Regiment 328 Philippine Scouts


Philippine Division (Lough; at Fort McKinley) Regular U.S. Army division (10,223 men) consisting of Americans and Philippine Scouts.  One battalion was in Bataan under Northern Luzon Force.


91 Division (Stevens; central Luzon Plain)

First Provisional Tank Force (at Fort Stotsenburg)


192 Tank Battalion 588 men, 54 Stuart M-3 tanks


194 Tank Battalion 410 men, 54 Stuart M-3 tanks

Far East Air Force (Brereton; at Manila)


Philippines Army Air Corps (at Batangas)



12 P-26 Peashooter


5 Bomber Command (at Clark Field)



19 Heavy Bomber Group
        14 Heavy Bomber Squadron (at Del Monte)      





8 B-17 Flying Fortress




93 Heavy Bomber Squadron (at Del Monte)





8 B-17 Flying Fortress




28 Heavy Bomber Squadron





9 B-17 Flying Fortress




13 Heavy Bomber Squadron





10 B-17 Flying Fortress



27 Light Bomber Squadron (at Nielson Field) The 52 A-24 Dauntless for this group were still en route to the Philippines with the Pensacola Convoy


5 Interceptor Command (Clagett; at Nielson Field)



24 Interceptor Group (at Clark Field)




3 Interceptor Squadron (at Iba)





18 P-40E Warhawk




17 Interceptor Squadron (at Nichols Field)





18 P-40E Warhawk




21 Interceptor Squadron (at Nichols Field)





18 P-40E Warhawk




20 Interceptor Squadron (at Clark Field)





19 P-40E Warhawk




34 Interceptor Squadron (at Del Carmen) The squadron was to be equipped with P-40s, but they arrived without coolant and were thus unserviceable.
          18 P-35



The second Luzon campaign

MacArthur had pledged to return to the Philippines, and in mid-1944 he succeeded in persuading Roosevelt to support landings on Luzon rather than on the Navy's preferred alternative of Formosa. The decision was formalized by the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 3 October 1944. The Luzon campaign would become the second largest American campaign of the Second World War, exceeded only by the campaign in northwest Europe.

MacArthur, like the Japanese in the first Luzon campaign, chose to land his main force at Lingayen Gulf. This required that the invasion convoy sail 200 miles (300 km) from the assembly area in Leyte Gulf to the landing beaches in the face of determined kamikaze attacks.

Preliminary Strikes. The Allied invasion force for Luzon began assembling on 2 January 1945. The invasion force was massive, with Oldendorf's covering force alone consisting of 6 battleships, 6 light cruisers, 14 destroyers, 6 destroyer escorts, 12 escort carriers, and other supporting and screening ships. As the invasion force prepared to sortie, Halsey's 3 Fleet attempted to eliminate the kamikaze threat with a series of airfield strikes, beginning with strikes against Formosa and the Ryukyus on 3-4 January in an effort to cut the air bridge from Japan. These strikes encountered poor weather, losing 22 aircraft without being able to observe the results of their strikes. However, no Japanese aircraft from Formosa participated in attacks on the invasion convoy. Halsey refueled on 5 January, then struck Luzon on 6 January, destroying perhaps 32 aircraft. The weather finally improved on 7 January and Halsey's pilots had their best day, claiming four aircraft shot down and 75 destroyed on the ground, at a cost of 28 aircraft (of which 18 were operational losses.)  Japanese air opposition was sporadic thereafter. Halsey refueled again on 8 January and made a final strike against Formosa on 9 January before executing a raid into the South China Sea. The 9 January strikes were again hindered by poor weather, and those planes that got through discovered that most of the aircraft at Heito airfield were dummy aircraft. However, Halsey's raiders were joined by B-29s from Kunming, which attacked shipping in and around Formosa. Total American aircraft losses in the series of raids numbered 86, of which 40 were operational losses.

Approach to Lingayen Gulf. The Japanese had detected the invasions preparations almost at once, and Halsey's strikes failed to completely eliminate the kamikaze threat. The Japanese expended some 240 aircraft in attacks on the American invasion force between 2-7 January 1945. These began with a near-miss on oiler Cowanesque shortly after the minesweepers leading the invasion force sortied on 2 January. Sporadic attacks continued through 4 January but were greatly hindered by the Allied combat air patrol. However, at 1712 on 4 January, a single two-engined kamikaze approached undetected and dove on Ommaney Bay, striking her flight deck amidshps. The aircraft's two bombs exploded in the hangar deck and in the forward engine room, the fires raged out of control, and Ommaney Bay was abandoned and scuttled. The kamikaze had approached from behind the mountains of Panay that blocked radar and was not spotted until seconds before impact.

5 January 1945 marked the first really intense kamikaze battle of the passage. The Japanese spotted Oldendorf's covering force early in the morning, and air cover from Mindoro was impossible due to weather, leaving the convoy to be protected only by its own escort carriers. Raids at 0458 and 1125 were repulsed by the combat air patrol, and Momi was spotted and sunk as she tried to flee Manila for Formosa. However, at 1650 a raid by 16 kamikazes and four escorting fighters managed to damage two heavy cruisers, an escort carrier and a destroyer escort.

6 January was the worst day of the passage. Oldendorf's force began to deploy, which increased the difficulties of fighter direction and decreased the concentration of antiaircraft. The first raids hit as Oldendorf began his preliminary bombardment, but inflicted no damage until noon, when New Mexico was hit on the bridge by a kamikaze that killed 30 men and wounded 87 others. The casualties included the battleship's commander, Churchill's personal liaison officer, and a Time Magazine correspondent. At about the same time, destroyer Walke was hit by a kamikaze that left her commander burning "like a living torch" (Morison 1959). The commander, George F. Davis, was extinguished and continued conning the ship until the raid was over, but died several hours later. Later that afternoon, a minesweeper was sunk and battleship California, three cruisers, two destroyers, a destroyer-transport, and a minesweeper were damaged. The fighter defense was overwhelmed, radar often being hindered by nearby mountains and the FM-2 Wildcats proving distinctly inferior to the newer Japanse Zero fighter models. The most destructive raids were carried out by just 28 kamikazes and 15 escorts, but the Japanese had already expended the cream of their kamikaze corps.

That evening, Hovey was sunk by a conventional aerial torpedo attack, and the next evening Palmer was sunk by a conventional bombing attack. There were no more successful kamikaze attacks until 8 January, when Australia, already damaged on 6 January, was repeatedly hit but refused to retire for repairs.

The transport convoy was spared the worse of the kamikazes, which concentrated on the covering force. Boise barely evaded a pair of torpedoes from a midget submarine on 5 January. Sporadic kamikaze raids hit an LST and barely missed several other ships, but the convoy escorts sank Hinoki on the evening of 7 January as she attempted to escape from Manila Bay. The worst kamikaze raids, on the morning of 8 January, damaged an escort carrier and an attack transport, but not a single soldier of the invasion force was injured. The final blow of the kamikazes came on 9 January with a damaging hit on escort carrier Kitkun Bay.

The passage of the invasion force to Lingayen Gulf showed the kamikazes at the peak of their effectiveness. A relatively modest number of aircraft inflicted the most serious casualties on Allied navies since the battle of Tassafaronga. However, the kamikazes did not halt the invasion, and the casualties were actually less than the most pessimistic Allied projections.

Landings. The landings themselves began at 0900 on 9 January, spearheaded by elements of 6 and 43 Divisions of Swift's I Corps on the left at San Fabian and and 37 and 40 Division from Griswold's XIV Corps on the right at Lingayen. The beaches were relatively exposed and subject to heavy surf, and the terrain behind them was less than idea, with numerous ponds, swamps, and rivers that favored the defenders. However, for these reasons, it was anticipated that Japanese defenses would be less formidable, and the 5000' (1500 meter) airstrip at Lingayen and Port Sual on the extreme right were valuable prizes if they could be seized quickly. LCI gunboats pounded the beaches, then the first wave went ashore, consisting of LVT(A) amphibious tanks. They was followed by several waves of LVT infantry carriers, which in turn were followed by waves of LCVPs, LCMs, and LSMs. Artillery was brought in by DUKWs as needed. 37 Division alone was provided with 13 LVT(A)s, 84 LVTs, 165 LCVPs, 12 LCMs and four LSMs in thirteen waves, plus two battalions of artillery carried by 13 DUKWs.

During the landings, Columbia, already damaged by earlier kamikaze attacks, was hit again but remained in action. Mississippi was also hit and suffered heavy casualties. Destroyer Jenkins was hit by a 75mm shell from a coastal battery but returned fire and put the battery out of action. Six landing ships were also hit by the coastal guns but suffered only moderate damage.

Opposition was very light on the beaches themselves, particularly in front of XIV Corps, which suffered just 30 killed in the first week of the operation. I Corps was less fortunate, suffering 220 killed and 660 wounded in the first week, but this was still much lighter than anticipated. The most serious opposition was on the extreme left flank. Pontoon causeways were quickly constructed to speed unloading, and about 30,000 tons of supplies were ashore by the end of the first day, and the beachhead was already 8000 yards (7300 meters) deep at its deepest penetration, in front of 43 Division.

That night the Allies attempted to protect their landing force with a smoke screen generated by specially equipped landing craft. This proved effective against kamikaze aircraft, but was no use against a force of 70 motor boats from Port Sual. These were not suicide boats, though their tactics were desperate: The lightly armed craft attempted to race alongside Allied vessels and drop depth charges near their hulls, then attempt to get away before the charges exploded. Two LCIs were lost and seven other ships ships damaged, but the motor boat force suffered heavy casualties and made no further attacks during the campaign.

An armored group and 25 Division landed two days later. By then the airstrip at Lingayen was ready for emergency landings, and Army fighters arrived to provide local air cover. However, by the time the last kamikaze attack in the Philippines took place, on 13 January, another escort carrier, two destroyer escorts, and two destroyer-transports had been hit, and Colorado had suffered heavy casualties from an errant antiaircraft shell.

The Dash to Manila. Yamashita, the Japanese commander, decided not to contest the landings. Instead, he ordered most of his forces (numbering some 260,000 men) move into mountainous areas of Luzon where they were to hold out as long as possible. Shobu Group, under Yamashita's personal command, would retreat into the mountains surrounding the Cagayan River valley east and northeast of Lingayen Gulf, while  Kembu Group would attempt to hold Clark Field for as long as possible before retreating into the Zambales Mountains of western Luzon. Shimbu Group would hold the mountains directly east of Manila.

MacArthur wanted Krueger to dash south and take Manila as quickly as possible. MacArthur was deeply concerned about the fate of American prisoners of war and civilian internees, who he rightly feared were in danger of being massacred by their guards. However, Krueger was reluctant to do so until reinforced, because most of I Corps was required to keep Yamashita bottled up and XIV Corps was encountering significant resistance around Clark Field. Clark Field was liberated on 25 January and 32 Division and 1 Cavalry Division arrived at Lingayen on 27 January.

To prevent the Japanese retreating into Bataan, some 30,000 men of Hall's XI Corps were landed north of Subic Bay on 29 January by Struble's Amphibian Group 9 (MIKE VII) with orders to seal off the peninsula. Naval cover was provided by Cruiser Division 12 and its escorting destroyers under R.S. Riggs. The MIKE VII landings also seized San Marcelino airstrip and threatened the rear of Kembu Group. The next day a group of four fast attack transports took a battalion of 34 Regimental Combat Team to secure Grande Island in Subic Bay.

On 31 January, the two glider regiments of 11 Airborne Division (Swing) were brought ashore at Nasugbu southwest of Manila by Fechteler's Amphibian Group 8 (MIKE VI). Opposition was initially light and the division immediately began racing for Tagaytay Ridge, which overlooks Manila from the southwest and from which a two-lane concrete road led past Cavite to the city. That night, a group of Japanese suicide boats from Balayan Bay succeeded in sinking PC-1129. The wary and exhausted American sailors off the beachhead then mistakenly sank two PT boats approaching the landing craft.

The next morning, the lead regiment of 11 Airborne Division found itself at the mouth of Aga Pass, a narrow defile between Mount Cariliao on the north and Mount Batulao on the south. The Japanese were dug in on both peaks and put up fierce resistance, prompting Swing to postpone the drop of his parachute regiment on Tagaytay Ridge until 3 February.  The night before the jump, pathfinders infiltrated through the pass to Tagaytay Ridge and reported by radio that it was unoccupied. The next morning the first of three echelons of paratroops were dropped on the ridge. The first 18 aircraft dropped their troops precisely on target, but the trailing 30 aircraft mistakenly dropped their troops six milses short of the intended drop zone. It took these troops the rest of the day to march to Tagaytay Ridge. The next day, the second echelon again dropped far short of the intended drop zone when they saw the parachutes from the previous day's misplaced drop.  The third drop was more accurate, and by 4 February 1945, 11 Airborne Division was firmly in control of Tagaytay Ridge and ready to advance on Manila.

Krueger was finally issued orders for the dash on Manila on 30 January 1945. XIV Corps was to secure Clark Field and push on to the Pampanga River within two days. I Corps was to attack towards San Jose on the left flank. XI Corps would push across the Bataan Peninsula to link up with XVI Corps. With the Japanese thus pinned down, 1 Cavalry Division and 44 Tank Battalion would punch through the Japanese lines just after  midnight on 1 February and lead a flying column headed south. Two Marine air groups, MAG-32 and MAG-24, operated out of Magaldan fifteen miles east of Lingayen and provided close air support. American units reached Santo Tomas Camp and Bilibid Prison on the outskirts of Manila on the evening of 3 February, rescuing over 7000 internees.

Yamashita did not intend to defend Manila, but 20,000 naval troops under Iwabuchi Sanji ignored Yamashita's instructions to destroy the port facilities and evacuate the city. 11 Airborne Division, coming up from the south, encountered stiff resistance at Nichols Field on 4 February and was not able to break through to the city until 12 February. The Japanese sailors fought ferociously for the Intramuros, the ancient center of the city. MacArthur refused to authorize the bombing of Japanese positions in Manila, but the Americans were compelled to use artillery to root out the Japanese.The battle did not end until 3 March 1945, and Manila was left more heavily devastated than any Allied city except Warsaw. It is estimated that 100,000 Filipinos died in the battle, most apparently deliberately murdered by the Japanese sailors.

Although 11 Airborne Division secured southern Luzon by 1 May 1945, the bulk of Yamashita's forces continue to hold out in the mountains east and northeast of Manila until the Japanese surrender. However, Corregidor was assaulted on 15 February and fell on 26 February, and the first Allied ships were able to dock at Manila on 15 March 1945. Though the Japanese had left some 350 wrecked ships in the harbor, engineers found ways to rapidly float and tow aside the wrecks, and by May the harbor was handling 90,000 deadweight tons of cargo per week. By the end of the war, 24 Liberty ships could simultaneously berth. This rendered Yamashita's surviving forces militarily irrelevant. 

Total 6 Army casualties in Luzon to 30 June 1945 numbered 8297 killed or missing and 29,557 wounded. Allied naval casualties exceeded 2000 American and Australian sailors.

Allied order of battle, 30 December 1944

3 Fleet (Halsey; in New Jersey at Ulithi)     

  
Task Force 38 (McCain; in Hancock)      



Task group 38.1 (Radford)




CV Yorktown





VF-3     
2 F6F-3, 46 F6F-5, 6 F6F-5p Hellcats




VB-3
3 SB2C-3, 21 SB2C-4 Helldivers




VT-3
18 TBM-1C Avengers



CV Wasp





VF-81     
13 F6F-3, 1 F6F-3p, 1 F6F-3N, 36 F6F-5, 3 F6F-5N Hellcats




VB-81
9 SB2C-3, 12 SBW-3 Helldivers




VT-81
18 TBM-1C Avengers



CVL Cowpens





VF-22
24 F6F-5, 1 F6F-5P Hellcats




VT-22
9 TBM-1C Avengers



CVL Monterey




VF-28
3 F6F-3, 21 F6F-5, 1 F6F-5P Hellcats




VT-28
9 TBM-1C Avengers


Support Unit (Lee; in South Dakota)



BB South Dakota




Battleship Division 8 (Shafroth)





BB Massachusetts     





BB Alabama




Cruiser Division 6 (Joy)





CA San Francisco





CA Baltimore




Cruiser Division 10 (Wiltse)





CA Boston




CL Astoria





CLAA San Diego





CL Oakland




Destroyer Squadron 61





DD DeHaven
DD Mansfield
DD Lyman K. Swenson
DD Collett
DD Maddox
DD Blue
DD Brush
DD Taussig
DD Samuel N. Moore




Destroyer Squadron 53





DD Cushing
DD Buchanan
DD Hobby
DD Welles
DD Dyson
DD Spence
DD Thatcher
DD Colahan
DD Halsey Powell
DD Benham
DD Yarnall
DD Stockham
DD Wedderburn
DD Hailey
DD Franks
DD Uhlmann





Sunk

  
Task Group 38.2 (Bogan)     




CV Lexington





VF-20
1 F6F-3, 68 F6F-5, 3 F6F-5N Hellcats




VB-20
15 SB2C-3 Helldivers




VT-20
15 TBM-1C Avengers


 
CV Hancock





VF-7
50 F6F-5, 2 F6F-5P, 2 F6F-5N Hellcats




VB-7
8 SB2C-3, 7 SB2C-3E, 10 SBW-3 Helldivers




VT-7
18 TBM-1C Avengers



CV Hornet




VF-11
15 F6F-3, 33 F6F-5, 3 F6F-5N Hellcats




VB-11
18 SB2C-3, 5 SBW-3 Helldivers




VT-11
18 TBM-1C Avengers



CVL Cabot




 
VF-29
4 F6F-3, 21 F6F-5 Hellcats




VT-29
9 TBM-1C Avengers



Battleship Division 4 (Hanson)




BB New Jersey





BB Wisconsin




Battleship Division 7 (Badger)





BB Iowa



Cruiser Division 17 (Jones)





CL Pasadena
CLAA San Juan
CL Miami
CL Wilkes-Barre




Destroyer Division 102





DD Capps
DD David W. Taylor     
DD Evans
DD John D. Henley
DD Boyd
DD Brown
DD Cowell
DD Trathen
DD Hazelwood




Destroyer Division 103





DD Owen
DD Miller
DD The Sullivans
DD Stephen Potter
DD Tingey




Destroyer Division 104




DD Hickox
DD Hunt
DD Hancock
DD Marshall





Destroyer Division 123





DD Ault
DD English
DD Charles S. Sperry     
DD Waldron
DD Haynsworth




Destroyer Division 124





DD John W. Weeks
DD Hank



Task Group 38.3 (Sherman)     




CV Essex


 

VF-4
27 F6F-3, 17 F6F-5 Hellcats




VB-4
24 SB2C-3 Helldivers




VT-4
18 TBM-1C Avengers




VMF-213
18 F4U-1 Corsairs



CV Ticonderoga




VF-80
68 F6F-5, 2 F6F-5P, 3 F6F-5N Hellcats




VB-80
22 SB2C-3 Helldivers




VT-80
14 TBM-3, 1 TBM-1C, 1 TBM-3P Avengers



CVL Langley




VF-44
20 F6F-5, 4 F6F-3, 1 F6F-5P Hellcats




VT-44
9 TBM-1C Avengers



CVL San Jacinto





VF-45
10 F6F-3, 13 F6F-5, 1 F6F-5P Hellcats




VT-45
7 TBM-1C, 2 TBM-3 Avengers



Batttleship Division 6 (Cooley)





BB Washington





BB North Carolina





BB South Dakota




Cruiser Division 13 (Deyo)





CL Santa Fe





CL Mobile





CL Biloxi




Cruiser Division 14 (Whiting)





CL Vincennes





CL Flint



Destroyer Squadron 50





DD Clarence K. Bronson
DD Cotten
DD Dortch
DD Gatling
DD Healy




Destroyer Division 100





DD Cogswell
DD Caperton
DD Ingersoll
DD Knapp




Destroyer Squadron 55





DD Porterfield
DD Callaghan
DD Cassin Young
DD Preston




Destroyer Division 110





DD Laws
DD Longshaw
DD Prichett
DD Halsey Powell



Task Group 38.5 (Gardner)
Night-flying group



CV Enterprise





VFN-90
16 F6F-5E, 16 F6F-5N, 2 F6F-5P Hellcats




VTN-90
27 TBM-3D Avengers



CVL Independence





VFN-41
9 F6F-5N Hellcats




VTN-41
4 TBM-1D, 4 TBM-3D Avengers



Destroyer Division 93





DD McCord
DD Trathen
DD Hazelwood




Destroyer Division 94





DD Haggard
DD Buchanan
DD Franks


Task Group 30.8 At Sea Logistics Group     



AO Atascosa
AO Aucilla
AO Cacapon
AO Cache
AO Caliente
AO Chicopee
AO Chikaskia
AO Cimarron
AO Enoree
AO Guadalupe
AO Housatonic
AO Kankakee
AO Kennebago
AO Lackawanna
AO Manatee
AO Marias
AO Mascoma
AO Merrimack
AO Millicoma
AO Monongahela
AO Nantahala
AO Neches
AO Neosho
AO Niobrara
AO Pamanset
AO Patuxent
AO Saugatuck
AO Taluga
AO Tomahawk



CVE Altahama
CVE Anzio
CVE Cape Esperance
CVE Kwajalein
CVE Shipley Bay
CVE Nehenta Bay
CVE Sargent Bay
CVE Rudyerd Bay



Destroyer Squadron 1




DD Dewey
DD Aylwin
DD Dale
DD Dyson
DD Farragut
DD Hailey
DD Hickox
DD Hobby
DD MacDonough
DD Thatcher
DD Thorn
DD Welles




DE Bangust
DE Crowley
DE Donaldson
DE George
DE Grady
DE Hilbert
DE Kyne
DE Lake
DE Lamons
DE Lawrence C. Taylor
DE Lewis
DE Lyman
DE Melvin W. Nawman
DE Mitchell
DE O'Neill
DE Osmus
DE Reynolds
DE Riddle
DE Robert F. Keller
DE Swearer
DE Tabberer
DE Waterman
DE Weaver
DE Wesson



AE Sangay
AE Mauna Loa
AE Australia Victory
AE Provo Victory
AE Rainier
AE Mount Baker
AE Nitro



AT Hitchiti
AT Jicarilla
AT Mataco
AT Molala
AT Sioux
AT Tekesta
AT Zuni

7 Fleet (Kinkaid)


Task Force 77 Luzon Attack Force (Kinkaid)     



Task Group 77.1 Fleet Flagship Group (Kinkaid)     




AGC Wasatch




CL Boise




DD Smith
DD Frazier
DD Coghlan
DD Edwards
http://www.notesoft.com/DiscussionBoards/Debunkers/index.php


Task Group 77.2 Bombardment and Fire Suppport Group (Oldendorf)     




San Fabian Fire Support Unit (Weyler)





Unit "M" (Commodore H.B. Farncomb)






CA Australia
BB Mississippi
DD Allen M. Sumner
DD Lowry
Damaged
Damaged
Damaged




Unit "N" (Sowell)






BB West Virginia
CA Shropshire
DD Laffey
DD O'Brien



Damaged




Unit "O" (Weyler)





BB New Mexico
CA Minneapolis
DD Barton
DD Moale
DD Ingraham
DD Walke





Damaged



Lingayen Fire Support Unit (Oldendorf





BB California
BB Pennsylvania
BB Colorado
CA Louisville
CA Portland
CL Columbia
DD Leutze
DD Heywood L. Edwards
DD Kimberly
DD Newcomb
DD Richard P. Leary
DD William W. Porter
DD Bennion
DD Bryant
DD Izard
DD Arunta
DD Warramunga
Damaged


Badly damaged

Damaged



Beach Demolition Group
Carrying UDT 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15




APD Badger
APD Dickerson
APD Rathburne
APD Clemson
APD Bull
APD Humphreys
APD Sands
APD Overton
APD Belknap
APD Blessman



Task Group 77.3 Close Covering Group (Berkey)




CL Phoenix
CL Montpelier
CL Denver (ComCruDiv12 Riggs)
DD Nicholas
DD Fletcher
DD Radford
DD O'Bannon
DD Taylor
DD Hopewell



Task Group 77.4 Escort Carrier Group (Durgin)




Lingayen Carrier Group (Durgin)




CVE Makin Island






VC-84
16 FM-2 Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Lunga Point






VC-85
14 FM-2 Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Bismarck Sea






VC-86
16 FM-2 Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Salamaua





VC-87
14 FM-2 Wildcat, 10 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Hoggatt Bay






VC-88
16 FM-2 Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger



Lingayen Protective Group (Ofstie)





CVE Kitkun Bay Damaged





VC-91
16 FM-2, 1 FM-2P Wildcat, 11 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Shamrock Bay





VC-94
20 FM-2, Wildcat, 11 TBM-3, 1 TBM-3P Avenger




DD John C. Butler
DD O'Flaherty




Hunter-Killer Group





CVE Tulagi





VC-92
11 FM-2, Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




DE Stafford
DE William Seiverling
DE Ulvert M. Moore
DE Kendall C. Campbell
DE Goss




Destroyer Squadron 6





DD Maury
DD Gridley
DD Bagley
DD Helm
DD Ralph Talbot
DD Patterson
DD McCall
DE Edmonds
DE Howard F. Clark




San Fabian Carrier Group (Stump)





CVE Natoma Bay






VC-81
18 FM-2, Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Manila Bay





VC-80
20 FM-2, Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Wake Island






VCO-1
23 FM-2, Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Steamer Bay






VC-90
16 FM-2, Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Savo Island






VC-27
19 FM-2, Wildcat, 11 TBM-1C, 1 TBM-1CP Avenger




CVE Ommaney Bay
Sunk





VC-75
19 FM-2, Wildcat, 10 TBM-1C, 1 TBM-1CP, 1 TBM-3 Avenger




Destroyer Squadron 51






DD Hall
DD Halligan
DD Bell
DD Burns
DD Paul Hamilton
DD Twiggs
DD Abbot




Close Covering Group (Henderson)





CVE Saginaw Bay






VC-78
20 FM-2, Wildcat, 12 TBM-3 Avenger




CVE Kadashan Bay Damaged





VC-20
24 FM-2 Wildcat, 10 TBM-1C, 1 TBM-1CP Avenger




CVE Marcus Island






VC-21
24 FM-2 Wildcat, 9 TBM-1C Avenger




CVE Petrof Bay






VC-76
20 FM-2 Wildcat, 12 TBM-1C Avenger




Destroyer Division 104






DD Charrette
DD Connor
DE Richard S. Bull
DE Richard M. Rowell



Task Group 77.6 Minesweeping and Hydrographic Group




Sweep Unit 1





AMD Hopkins
AMD Chandler
AMD Southard
AMD Hovey
AMD Long
DM Preble
APD Brooks
4 LPCR


Damaged


Sunk
Sunk

Damaged



Sweep Unit 2





AMD Hamilton
AMD Dorsey
AMD Palmer
AMD Hogan
AMD Howard
DM Breese


Sunk



Sweep Unit 3





AM Requisite
AM Pursuit
AM Sage
AM Scuffle
AM Triumph




Sweep Unit 4





AM Saunter
AM Salute
AM Scout
AM Scrimmage
AM Sentry




Other sweep units





Sweep Unit 5, 8 YMS
Sweep Unit 6, 8 YMS
Sweep Unit 7, 8 YMS
Sweep Unit 8, 8 YMS
Sweep Unit 9, 5 YMS
Sweep Unit 10, 5 YMS
Sweep Unit 11, 4 LPCR




Hydrographic Unit





PF Gascoyne
AM Warrego
AGS Benalia
HDML-1074
YMS-316




Service Unit





AM Monadnock



Task Group 77.7 Screening Group




Destroyer Division 48





DD Bush
DD Stanly
DD Halford
DD Stembel



Task Group 77.8 Salvage and Rescue Group




ARS Grasp
ARS Grapple
ARS Cable
ARL Amycus
ARL Egeria
AT Apache
AT Chickasaw
AT Chowanoc
AT Potawatomi
AT Hidatsa
AT Quapaw
AT Rail
ATR-61
8 LCI(L)



Task Group 77.9 Reinforcement Group (Conolly)
Carrying 25 Division (Mullins); 158 Regimental Combat Team; 13 Armored Group



AGC Appalachian
DD Remey




Noumea Transport Unit





APA Zeilin
APA President Jackson
APA President Adams
APA La Porte
APA Latimer
APA Oxford
APA Oconto
APA Laurens
APA Audrain
AP President Monroe
AP Comet
AKA Algol
AKA Navajo Victory
AKA Manderson Victory
AKA Las Vegas Victory
AKA Bedford Victory
AKA H.T. Dodge
AKA Solon Turman
AE Wrangell
AK Fomalhaut





Screen






DD McNair
DD Norman Scott
DD Melvin




Bougainville Unit





AP President Polk
APA Libra
DE Harmon




Milne Bay Unit





APA Warren
DE Darby




Oro Bay Unit





AKA Uvalde
DE J. Douglas Blackwood




Lae Unit





APA Olmsted




Finschhaven Unit





APH Tryon
AKA Warrick




Hollandia Unit





AP Winged Arrow
APA Appling
APD Coolbaugh




Noemfoor Unt





APA Leon
APA Adair
APA Haskell
AKA Diphda
APD Kilty
APD Schley
APD Crosby
APD Herbert
APD Lloyd
APD Newman
APD Kephart
APD Cofer
APD Talbot
APD Manley
APD Goldsborough




Leyte Transport Unit





APA Gilliam
AO Bennington
AO Birch Coulie




LST Unit





Bougainville LST Unit






DE Greenwood
3 LST





Oro Bay LST Unit






DE Loeser
5 LST





Hollandia LST Unit






DD Monssen
7 LST
SC-735
7 AK





Noemfoor LST Unit






6 LST
PC-462
PC-563





Sansapor LST Unit






LST-219
PC-464





Morotai LST Unit






DD McDermut
DD McGowan
DD Mertz
13 LST





Leyte LST Unit






15 LST



Task Group 77.1 Service Group (Glover)




Leyte Service Unit





IX Caribou
IX Carondelet
IX Silver Cloud
AO Shikellamy
AOG Susquehanna
AO Bishopdale
AO Kurumba
AW Stag
AE Pyro
AE Yunnan
AK Murzim
AK Bootes
AG Acubens
AN Teaberry
AN Satinleaf
AN Teak
AN Silverbell
AR Midas
Drydock #19
AK Iran Victory
AK Meridian Victory




Lingayen Service Unit





AO Tallulah
AO Schuylkill
AO Chepachet
IX Mink
IX Andrew Doria
IX Kenwood
AW Severn
AE Elmira Victory
AE Provo Victory
2 LST
AKN Indus




Mindoro Service Unit





AO Suamico
AO Salamonie
AO Winooski
AO Pecos
AO Cowanesque
IX Panda
AE Durham Victory
AE Bluefield Victory
AGP Cyrene




Damaged



Screen





DE Thomason
DE Lovelace
DE Manning
DE Neuendorf
DE James E. Craig
DE Eichenberger


Task Force 78 San Fabian Attack Force (Barbey)
Carrying I Corps (Swift)


Task Group 78.1 White Beach Attack Group (Barbey) Carrying 43 Division (Wing)



AGC Blue Ridge




White Beach Transport Group





Transport Group A






APA DuPage
APA Fuller
APA Wayne
AP John Land
AK Aquarius





Transport Group B






APA Cavalier
APA Feland
AP Golden City
AK Thuban
LSD Shadwell





Transport Ship C






APA Fayette
APA Heywood
APA Leedstown
AK Hercules
LSD Epping Forest
LSD White Marsh




LST Group





Unit A: 10 LST
Unit B: 10 LST
LSM Group: 10 LSM
LCI Smoke Group: 13 LCI
LCT Group: 6 LCT
Control Unit: 4 SC, 3 PC
LCI Support Unit: 3 LCI(M), 11 LCI(G), 5 LCI(R)





Screen






DD Charles Ausburne
DD Drayton
DD Shaw
DD Russell
DD Jenkins
DD La Vallette
DD Converse
DD Foote
DD Braine
DE Charles J. Kimmel
DE Thomas F. Nickel
2 PC




Damaged


Task Group 78.5 Blue Beach Attack Group (Fechteler)
Carrying 6 Division (Patrick)



APA Fremont



Blue Beach Transport Group





Transport Division 20






APA Leonard Wood
APA Pierce
APA James O'Hara
AP La Salle
AKA Electra
AK Auriga
LSD Belle Grove





Transport Division 26






APA Callaway
APA Sumter
AP Storm King
AK Jupiter
LSV Monitor
LSD Gunston Hall
Damaged




Transport Division 32






APA Barnstable
APA Elmore
APA Banner
AP Herald of the Morning
AK Mercury
APH Rixey





Tractor Unit: 30 LST
LSM Unit: 10 LSM
Control Unit: 3 PC, 4 SC
Support Unit: 2 LCI(G)
Rocket and LCI Unit: 5 LCI, 7 LCI(R)
LCT Unit: 6 LCT
Salvage Unit: 2 LCI




Screen






DD Morris
DD Lang
DD Stack
DD Mustin
DD Dashiell
DD Wilson
DE Day
DE Hodges
DE Peiffer
DE Tinsman





Damaged

Task Force 79 Lingayen Attack Force (Wilkinson)
Carrying XIV Corps (Griswold)


AGC Mount Olympus



Task Group 79.1 Attack Group Able (Kiland)
Carrying 37 Division (Beightler)



AGC Mount McKinley




Task Group 79.3 Transport Group Able





Transport Division 28






APA Harris
APA Doyen
APA Bolivar
APA Sheridan
AK Almaack
LSV Ozark
LSD Oak Hill
http://www.notesoft.com/DiscussionBoards/Debunkers/index.php




Transport Division 8






APA Sarasota
AKA Titania
LSI Manoora
LSI Kanimbla
LSI Westralia





Transport Division 38






APA Lamar
APA Harry Lee
APA Alpine
AP Starlight
APH Pinkney
AK Alshain




Task Group 79.5 Tractor Group Able





LST Assault Unit: 8 LST
LST Resere Unit: 11 LST
LSM Assault Unit: 7 LSM
LSM Reserve Unit: 11 LSM
LCT Unit: 6 LCT




Task Group 79.7 LCI Group Able





Salvage and Firefighting Unit: 3 LCI(L)
Rocket Gunboat Unit: 13 LCI(G)
Mortar Unit: 6 LCI(M)





Task Group 79.9 Control Group Able





DE Abercrombie
3 PC
3 PCS
3 YMS
1 SC




Task Group 79.11 Screen





DD Waller
DD Saufley
DD Philip
DD Renshaw
DD Cony
DD Robinson
DE Le Ray Wilson
DE Gilligan



Task Group 79.2 Attack Group Baker (Royal)
Carrying 40 Division (Brush)



AGC Rocky Mount




Task Group 79.4 Transport Group Baker





Transport Division 10






APA Clay
APA William P. Biddle
APA Arthur Middleton
APA Baxter
AP George F. Elliot
LSV Catskill
AKA Capricornus





Transport Division 18






APA Cambria
APA Monrovia
APA Frederick Funston
AP Wark Hawk
AKA Alcyone
Devlin (1979)




Transport Division 30






APA Knox
APA Calvert
APA Custer
AKA Chara
LSD Lindenwald
LSD Ashland
LSD Casa Grande





Landing Craft Control Unit






DE Walter C. Wann
3 PC
4 SC
2 PCE(R)











Task Group 79.6 Tractor Group Baker





Assaul Unit Green: 5 LST
Assault Unit Orange: 4 LST
LST Reserve Unit: 10 LST
LSM Reserve Unit: 31 LSM
LCT Unit: 6 LCT











Task Group 79.8 LCI Support Group





Mortar Unit: 6 LCI(M)
Rocket and Gunboat Unit: 13 LCI(G)
Salvage Unit: 2 LCI(L)




Transport Group Baker Screen





DD Bush
DD Halford
DD Conway
DD Eaton
DD Sigourney
DD Stembel
DE Richard W. Suesens
DE Oberrender
Devlin (1979)



Landing Craft Screen





DD Picking
DD Isherwood
DD Luce
DD Sproston
DD Wickes
DD Young
DD Charles J. Badger


Task Force 73 Aircraft, 7 Fleet (Wagner)



Task Group 73.2 Lingayen Group (Wagner)



Search and ASW Unit (Wagner)




AV Currituck
AVP Baritaria
3 AVR






VPB-20
VPB-71
11 PBM-3D Mariner
12 PBY-5A Catalina




Spotting and Rescue Unit






AVP Orca
VPB-54 (first section)

6 PBY-5A Catalina


Task Group 73.3 Manus Group




VS-61
VPB-146
12 VSB Helldiver
12 PV-1 Ventura


Task Group 73.4 Morotai Group




AV Heron




VPB-101
VPB-130
9 PB4Y Liberator
12 PV-1 Ventura


Task Group 73.5 Leyte Rescue Group




AV Tangier




VPB-54 (second section)
6 PBY-5A Catalina


Task Group 73.6 Leyte Search Group




VPB-104
VPB-117
VPB-137
12 PB4Y Liberator
15 PB4Y Liberator
12 PV-1 Ventura


Task Group 73.7 Mindoro Group
Devlin (1979)



AVP Half Moon
AVP San Pablo




VPB-25
12 PBM Mariner

Allied reinforcements

1 Cavalry Division Arrived 27 January at Lingayen Gulf
32 Division
Arrived 27 January at Lingayen GulfDevlin (1979)
XI Corps (Hall) Landed 29 January on west coast of Luzon
 
38 Division


34 Regimental Combat Team     
Detached from 24 Division
11 Airborne Division
Landed 31 January at Batangas

Japanese order of battle, 30 December 1944

14 Area Army (Yamashita)     
About 260,000 men

Shobu Group (Yamashita)  


 
2 Armored Division (Iwanaka)     



10 Division (Okamoto)



19 Division (Ozaki)



23 Division (Nishiyama)



103 Division (Muraoka)



58 Independent Mixed Brigade (Sato)     



11 Regiment
Tsuda Detachment
 
Shimbu Group (Yokoyama)



8 Division (Yokoyama)



105 Division (Tsuda)


Kembu Group (Tsukada)



1 Raiding Group



2 Mobile Infantry Regiment
Detached from 2 Armored Division


39 Regiment
Detached from 10 Division


26 Air Flotilla (Sugimoto)
About 15,000 combat and service troops

4 Air Army (Tominaga)

Southwest Area Fleet (Okawachi)      
About 25,000 men. Only nominally under Yamashita's contro

2 Air Fleet (Fukudome)


31 Special Base Force (Iwabuchi)

References

Cohen (1949)

Devlin (1979)

Marston (2005)

Morison (1959)

Rottman (2002)

Van Royen and Bowles (1952)



Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional